Source code for manim.mobject.svg.text_mobject

"""Mobjects used for displaying (non-LaTeX) text.

.. note::
   Just as you can use :class:`~.Tex` and :class:`~.MathTex` (from the module :mod:`~.tex_mobject`)
   to insert LaTeX to your videos, you can use :class:`~.Text` to to add normal text.

.. important::

   See the corresponding tutorial :ref:`rendering-with-latex`


The simplest way to add text to your animations is to use the :class:`~.Text` class. It uses the Pango library to render text.
With Pango, you are also able to render non-English alphabets like `你好` or  `こんにちは` or `안녕하세요` or `مرحبا بالعالم`.

Examples
--------

.. manim:: HelloWorld
    :save_last_frame:

    class HelloWorld(Scene):
        def construct(self):
            text = Text('Hello world').scale(3)
            self.add(text)

.. manim:: TextAlignment
    :save_last_frame:

    class TextAlignment(Scene):
        def construct(self):
            title = Text("K-means clustering and Logistic Regression", color=WHITE)
            title.scale(0.75)
            self.add(title.to_edge(UP))

            t1 = Text("1. Measuring").set_color(WHITE)

            t2 = Text("2. Clustering").set_color(WHITE)

            t3 = Text("3. Regression").set_color(WHITE)

            t4 = Text("4. Prediction").set_color(WHITE)

            x = VGroup(t1, t2, t3, t4).arrange(direction=DOWN, aligned_edge=LEFT).scale(0.7).next_to(ORIGIN,DR)
            x.set_opacity(0.5)
            x.submobjects[1].set_opacity(1)
            self.add(x)

"""

__all__ = ["Text", "Paragraph", "MarkupText", "register_font"]


import copy
import hashlib
import os
import re
from contextlib import contextmanager
from pathlib import Path
from typing import Dict, Union

import manimpango
import numpy as np
from colour import Color
from manimpango import MarkupUtils, PangoUtils, TextSetting

from ... import config, logger
from ...constants import *
from ...mobject.geometry import Dot
from ...mobject.svg.svg_mobject import SVGMobject
from ...mobject.types.vectorized_mobject import VGroup
from ...utils.color import WHITE, Colors
from ...utils.deprecation import deprecated_params

TEXT_MOB_SCALE_FACTOR = 0.05
DEFAULT_LINE_SPACING_SCALE = 0.3
TEXT2SVG_ADJUSTMENT_FACTOR = 4.8


[docs]def remove_invisible_chars(mobject): """Function to remove unwanted invisible characters from some mobjects. Parameters ---------- mobject : :class:`~.SVGMobject` Any SVGMobject from which we want to remove unwanted invisible characters. Returns ------- :class:`~.SVGMobject` The SVGMobject without unwanted invisible characters. """ iscode = False if mobject.__class__.__name__ == "Text": mobject = mobject[:] elif mobject.__class__.__name__ == "Code": iscode = True code = mobject mobject = mobject.code mobject_without_dots = VGroup() if mobject[0].__class__ == VGroup: for i in range(mobject.__len__()): mobject_without_dots.add(VGroup()) mobject_without_dots[i].add(*(k for k in mobject[i] if k.__class__ != Dot)) else: mobject_without_dots.add(*(k for k in mobject if k.__class__ != Dot)) if iscode: code.code = mobject_without_dots return code return mobject_without_dots
[docs]class Paragraph(VGroup): r"""Display a paragraph of text. For a given :class:`.Paragraph` ``par``, the attribute ``par.chars`` is a :class:`.VGroup` containing all the lines. In this context, every line is constructed as a :class:`.VGroup` of characters contained in the line. Parameters ---------- line_spacing : :class:`float`, optional Represents the spacing between lines. Default to -1, which means auto. alignment : :class:`str`, optional Defines the alignment of paragraph. Default to "left". Possible values are "left", "right", "center" Examples -------- Normal usage:: paragraph = Paragraph('this is a awesome', 'paragraph', 'With \nNewlines', '\tWith Tabs', ' With Spaces', 'With Alignments', 'center', 'left', 'right') Remove unwanted invisible characters:: self.play(Transform(remove_invisible_chars(paragraph.chars[0:2]), remove_invisible_chars(paragraph.chars[3][0:3])) """ def __init__(self, *text, line_spacing=-1, alignment=None, **config): self.line_spacing = line_spacing self.alignment = alignment super().__init__() lines_str = "\n".join(list(text)) self.lines_text = Text(lines_str, line_spacing=line_spacing, **config) lines_str_list = lines_str.split("\n") self.chars = self.gen_chars(lines_str_list) chars_lines_text_list = self.get_group_class()() char_index_counter = 0 for line_index in range(lines_str_list.__len__()): chars_lines_text_list.add( self.lines_text[ char_index_counter : char_index_counter + lines_str_list[line_index].__len__() + 1 ], ) char_index_counter += lines_str_list[line_index].__len__() + 1 self.lines = [] self.lines.append([]) for line_no in range(chars_lines_text_list.__len__()): self.lines[0].append(chars_lines_text_list[line_no]) self.lines_initial_positions = [] for line_no in range(self.lines[0].__len__()): self.lines_initial_positions.append(self.lines[0][line_no].get_center()) self.lines.append([]) self.lines[1].extend( [self.alignment for _ in range(chars_lines_text_list.__len__())], ) self.add(*self.lines[0]) self.move_to(np.array([0, 0, 0])) if self.alignment: self.set_all_lines_alignments(self.alignment)
[docs] def gen_chars(self, lines_str_list): """Function to convert plain string to 2d-VGroup of chars. 2d-VGroup mean "VGroup of VGroup". Parameters ---------- lines_str_list : :class:`str` Plain text string. Returns ------- :class:`~.VGroup` The generated 2d-VGroup of chars. """ char_index_counter = 0 chars = self.get_group_class()() for line_no in range(lines_str_list.__len__()): chars.add(self.get_group_class()()) chars[line_no].add( *self.lines_text.chars[ char_index_counter : char_index_counter + lines_str_list[line_no].__len__() + 1 ] ) char_index_counter += lines_str_list[line_no].__len__() + 1 return chars
[docs] def set_all_lines_alignments(self, alignment): """Function to set all line's alignment to a specific value. Parameters ---------- alignment : :class:`str` Defines the alignment of paragraph. Possible values are "left", "right", "center". """ for line_no in range(0, self.lines[0].__len__()): self.change_alignment_for_a_line(alignment, line_no) return self
[docs] def set_line_alignment(self, alignment, line_no): """Function to set one line's alignment to a specific value. Parameters ---------- alignment : :class:`str` Defines the alignment of paragraph. Possible values are "left", "right", "center". line_no : :class:`int` Defines the line number for which we want to set given alignment. """ self.change_alignment_for_a_line(alignment, line_no) return self
[docs] def set_all_lines_to_initial_positions(self): """Set all lines to their initial positions.""" self.lines[1] = [None for _ in range(self.lines[0].__len__())] for line_no in range(0, self.lines[0].__len__()): self[line_no].move_to( self.get_center() + self.lines_initial_positions[line_no], ) return self
[docs] def set_line_to_initial_position(self, line_no): """Function to set one line to initial positions. Parameters ---------- line_no : :class:`int` Defines the line number for which we want to set given alignment. """ self.lines[1][line_no] = None self[line_no].move_to(self.get_center() + self.lines_initial_positions[line_no]) return self
[docs] def change_alignment_for_a_line(self, alignment, line_no): """Function to change one line's alignment to a specific value. Parameters ---------- alignment : :class:`str` Defines the alignment of paragraph. Possible values are "left", "right", "center". line_no : :class:`int` Defines the line number for which we want to set given alignment. """ self.lines[1][line_no] = alignment if self.lines[1][line_no] == "center": self[line_no].move_to( np.array([self.get_center()[0], self[line_no].get_center()[1], 0]), ) elif self.lines[1][line_no] == "right": self[line_no].move_to( np.array( [ self.get_right()[0] - self[line_no].width / 2, self[line_no].get_center()[1], 0, ], ), ) elif self.lines[1][line_no] == "left": self[line_no].move_to( np.array( [ self.get_left()[0] + self[line_no].width / 2, self[line_no].get_center()[1], 0, ], ), )
[docs]class Text(SVGMobject): r"""Display (non-LaTeX) text rendered using `Pango <https://pango.gnome.org/>`_. Text objects behave like a :class:`.VGroup`-like iterable of all characters in the given text. In particular, slicing is possible. Parameters ---------- text : :class:`str` The text that need to created as mobject. Returns ------- :class:`Text` The mobject like :class:`.VGroup`. Examples --------- .. manim:: Example1Text :save_last_frame: class Example1Text(Scene): def construct(self): text = Text('Hello world').scale(3) self.add(text) .. manim:: TextColorExample :save_last_frame: class TextColorExample(Scene): def construct(self): text1 = Text('Hello world', color=BLUE).scale(3) text2 = Text('Hello world', gradient=(BLUE, GREEN)).scale(3).next_to(text1, DOWN) self.add(text1, text2) .. manim:: TextItalicAndBoldExample :save_last_frame: class TextItalicAndBoldExample(Scene): def construct(self): text1 = Text("Hello world", slant=ITALIC) text2 = Text("Hello world", t2s={'world':ITALIC}) text3 = Text("Hello world", weight=BOLD) text4 = Text("Hello world", t2w={'world':BOLD}) text5 = Text("Hello world", t2c={'o':YELLOW}, disable_ligatures=True) text6 = Text( "Visit us at docs.manim.community", t2c={"docs.manim.community": YELLOW}, disable_ligatures=True, ) text6.scale(1.3).shift(DOWN) self.add(text1, text2, text3, text4, text5 , text6) Group(*self.mobjects).arrange(DOWN, buff=.8).set_height(config.frame_height-LARGE_BUFF) .. manim:: TextMoreCustomization :save_last_frame: class TextMoreCustomization(Scene): def construct(self): text1 = Text( 'Google', t2c={'[:1]': '#3174f0', '[1:2]': '#e53125', '[2:3]': '#fbb003', '[3:4]': '#3174f0', '[4:5]': '#269a43', '[5:]': '#e53125'}, font_size=58).scale(3) self.add(text1) As :class:`Text` uses Pango to render text, rendering non-English characters is easily possible: .. manim:: MultipleFonts :save_last_frame: class MultipleFonts(Scene): def construct(self): morning = Text("வணக்கம்", font="sans-serif") japanese = Text( "日本へようこそ", t2c={"日本": BLUE} ) # works same as ``Text``. mess = Text("Multi-Language", weight=BOLD) russ = Text("Здравствуйте मस नम म ", font="sans-serif") hin = Text("नमस्ते", font="sans-serif") arb = Text( "صباح الخير \n تشرفت بمقابلتك", font="sans-serif" ) # don't mix RTL and LTR languages nothing shows up then ;-) chinese = Text("臂猿「黛比」帶著孩子", font="sans-serif") self.add(morning, japanese, mess, russ, hin, arb, chinese) for i,mobj in enumerate(self.mobjects): mobj.shift(DOWN*(i-3)) .. manim:: PangoRender :quality: low class PangoRender(Scene): def construct(self): morning = Text("வணக்கம்", font="sans-serif") self.play(Write(morning)) self.wait(2) Tests ----- Check that the creation of :class:`~.Text` works:: >>> Text('The horse does not eat cucumber salad.') Text('The horse does not eat cucumber salad.') """ def __init__( self, text: str, fill_opacity: float = 1.0, stroke_width: float = 0, color: Color = WHITE, font_size: float = DEFAULT_FONT_SIZE, line_spacing: float = -1, font: str = "", slant: str = NORMAL, weight: str = NORMAL, t2c: Dict[str, str] = None, t2f: Dict[str, str] = None, t2g: Dict[str, tuple] = None, t2s: Dict[str, str] = None, t2w: Dict[str, str] = None, gradient: tuple = None, tab_width: int = 4, # Mobject height: float = None, width: float = None, should_center: bool = True, unpack_groups: bool = True, disable_ligatures: bool = False, **kwargs, ): self.line_spacing = line_spacing self.font = font self._font_size = float(font_size) # needs to be a float or else size is inflated when font_size = 24 (unknown cause) self.slant = slant self.weight = weight self.gradient = gradient self.tab_width = tab_width if t2c is None: t2c = {} if t2f is None: t2f = {} if t2g is None: t2g = {} if t2s is None: t2s = {} if t2w is None: t2w = {} # If long form arguments are present, they take precedence t2c = kwargs.pop("text2color", t2c) t2f = kwargs.pop("text2font", t2f) t2g = kwargs.pop("text2gradient", t2g) t2s = kwargs.pop("text2slant", t2s) t2w = kwargs.pop("text2weight", t2w) self.t2c = t2c self.t2f = t2f self.t2g = t2g self.t2s = t2s self.t2w = t2w self.original_text = text self.disable_ligatures = disable_ligatures text_without_tabs = text if text.find("\t") != -1: text_without_tabs = text.replace("\t", " " * self.tab_width) self.text = text_without_tabs if self.line_spacing == -1: self.line_spacing = ( self._font_size + self._font_size * DEFAULT_LINE_SPACING_SCALE ) else: self.line_spacing = self._font_size + self._font_size * self.line_spacing file_name = self.text2svg() PangoUtils.remove_last_M(file_name) super().__init__( file_name, color=color, fill_opacity=fill_opacity, stroke_width=stroke_width, height=height, width=width, should_center=should_center, unpack_groups=unpack_groups, **kwargs, ) self.text = text if self.disable_ligatures: self.submobjects = [*self.gen_chars()] self.chars = self.get_group_class()(*self.submobjects) self.text = text_without_tabs.replace(" ", "").replace("\n", "") if config.renderer == "opengl": nppc = self.n_points_per_curve else: nppc = self.n_points_per_cubic_curve for each in self: if len(each.points) == 0: continue points = each.points last = points[0] each.clear_points() for index, point in enumerate(points): each.append_points([point]) if ( index != len(points) - 1 and (index + 1) % nppc == 0 and any(point != points[index + 1]) ): each.add_line_to(last) last = points[index + 1] each.add_line_to(last) if self.t2c: self.set_color_by_t2c() if self.gradient: self.set_color_by_gradient(*self.gradient) if self.t2g: self.set_color_by_t2g() # anti-aliasing if height is None and width is None: self.scale(TEXT_MOB_SCALE_FACTOR) self.initial_height = self.height def __repr__(self): return f"Text({repr(self.original_text)})" @property def font_size(self): return ( self.height / self.initial_height / TEXT_MOB_SCALE_FACTOR * 2.4 * self._font_size / DEFAULT_FONT_SIZE ) @font_size.setter def font_size(self, font_val): # TODO: use pango's font size scaling. if font_val <= 0: raise ValueError("font_size must be greater than 0.") else: self.scale(font_val / self.font_size) def gen_chars(self): chars = self.get_group_class()() submobjects_char_index = 0 for char_index in range(self.text.__len__()): if self.text[char_index] in (" ", "\t", "\n"): space = Dot(radius=0, fill_opacity=0, stroke_opacity=0) if char_index == 0: space.move_to(self.submobjects[submobjects_char_index].get_center()) else: space.move_to( self.submobjects[submobjects_char_index - 1].get_center(), ) chars.add(space) else: chars.add(self.submobjects[submobjects_char_index]) submobjects_char_index += 1 return chars
[docs] def find_indexes(self, word: str, text: str): """Internally used function. Finds the indexes of ``text`` in ``word``.""" temp = re.match(r"\[([0-9\-]{0,}):([0-9\-]{0,})\]", word) if temp: start = int(temp.group(1)) if temp.group(1) != "" else 0 end = int(temp.group(2)) if temp.group(2) != "" else len(text) start = len(text) + start if start < 0 else start end = len(text) + end if end < 0 else end return [(start, end)] indexes = [] index = text.find(word) while index != -1: indexes.append((index, index + len(word))) index = text.find(word, index + len(word)) return indexes
# def full2short(self, kwargs): # """Internally used function. Formats some expansion to short forms. # text2color -> t2c # text2font -> t2f # text2gradient -> t2g # text2slant -> t2s # text2weight -> t2w # """ # if "text2color" in kwargs: # self.t2c = kwargs.pop("text2color") # if "text2font" in kwargs: # self.t2f = kwargs.pop("text2font") # if "text2gradient" in kwargs: # self.t2g = kwargs.pop("text2gradient") # if "text2slant" in kwargs: # self.t2s = kwargs.pop("text2slant") # if "text2weight" in kwargs: # self.t2w = kwargs.pop("text2weight")
[docs] def set_color_by_t2c(self, t2c=None): """Internally used function. Sets color for specified strings.""" t2c = t2c if t2c else self.t2c for word, color in list(t2c.items()): for start, end in self.find_indexes(word, self.original_text): self.chars[start:end].set_color(color)
[docs] def set_color_by_t2g(self, t2g=None): """Internally used. Sets gradient colors for specified strings. Behaves similarly to ``set_color_by_t2c``.""" t2g = t2g if t2g else self.t2g for word, gradient in list(t2g.items()): for start, end in self.find_indexes(word, self.original_text): self.chars[start:end].set_color_by_gradient(*gradient)
[docs] def text2hash(self): """Internally used function. Generates ``sha256`` hash for file name. """ settings = ( "PANGO" + self.font + self.slant + self.weight ) # to differentiate Text and CairoText settings += str(self.t2f) + str(self.t2s) + str(self.t2w) settings += str(self.line_spacing) + str(self._font_size) settings += str(self.disable_ligatures) id_str = self.text + settings hasher = hashlib.sha256() hasher.update(id_str.encode()) return hasher.hexdigest()[:16]
[docs] def text2settings(self): """Internally used function. Converts the texts and styles to a setting for parsing.""" settings = [] t2x = [self.t2f, self.t2s, self.t2w] for i in range(len(t2x)): fsw = [self.font, self.slant, self.weight] if t2x[i]: for word, x in list(t2x[i].items()): for start, end in self.find_indexes(word, self.text): fsw[i] = x settings.append(TextSetting(start, end, *fsw)) # Set all text settings (default font, slant, weight) fsw = [self.font, self.slant, self.weight] settings.sort(key=lambda setting: setting.start) temp_settings = settings.copy() start = 0 for setting in settings: if setting.start != start: temp_settings.append(TextSetting(start, setting.start, *fsw)) start = setting.end if start != len(self.text): temp_settings.append(TextSetting(start, len(self.text), *fsw)) settings = sorted(temp_settings, key=lambda setting: setting.start) if re.search(r"\n", self.text): line_num = 0 for start, end in self.find_indexes("\n", self.text): for setting in settings: if setting.line_num == -1: setting.line_num = line_num if start < setting.end: line_num += 1 new_setting = copy.copy(setting) setting.end = end new_setting.start = end new_setting.line_num = line_num settings.append(new_setting) settings.sort(key=lambda setting: setting.start) break for setting in settings: if setting.line_num == -1: setting.line_num = 0 return settings
[docs] def text2svg(self): """Convert the text to SVG using Pango.""" size = self._font_size line_spacing = self.line_spacing size /= TEXT2SVG_ADJUSTMENT_FACTOR line_spacing /= TEXT2SVG_ADJUSTMENT_FACTOR dir_name = config.get_dir("text_dir") if not os.path.exists(dir_name): os.makedirs(dir_name) hash_name = self.text2hash() file_name = os.path.join(dir_name, hash_name) + ".svg" if os.path.exists(file_name): svg_file = file_name else: settings = self.text2settings() width = config["pixel_width"] height = config["pixel_height"] svg_file = manimpango.text2svg( settings, size, line_spacing, self.disable_ligatures, file_name, START_X, START_Y, width, height, self.text, ) return svg_file
[docs] def init_colors(self, propagate_colors=True): super().init_colors(propagate_colors=propagate_colors)
[docs]class MarkupText(SVGMobject): r"""Display (non-LaTeX) text rendered using `Pango <https://pango.gnome.org/>`_. Text objects behave like a :class:`.VGroup`-like iterable of all characters in the given text. In particular, slicing is possible. **What is PangoMarkup?** PangoMarkup is a small markup language like html and it helps you avoid using "range of characters" while coloring or styling a piece a Text. You can use this language with :class:`~.MarkupText`. A simple example of a marked-up string might be:: <span foreground="blue" size="x-large">Blue text</span> is <i>cool</i>!" and it can be used with :class:`~.MarkupText` as .. manim:: MarkupExample :save_last_frame: class MarkupExample(Scene): def construct(self): text = MarkupText('<span foreground="blue" size="x-large">Blue text</span> is <i>cool</i>!"') self.add(text) A more elaborate example would be: .. manim:: MarkupElaborateExample :save_last_frame: class MarkupElaborateExample(Scene): def construct(self): text = MarkupText( '<span foreground="purple">ا</span><span foreground="red">َ</span>' 'ل<span foreground="blue">ْ</span>ع<span foreground="red">َ</span>ر' '<span foreground="red">َ</span>ب<span foreground="red">ِ</span>ي' '<span foreground="green">ّ</span><span foreground="red">َ</span>ة' '<span foreground="blue">ُ</span>' ) self.add(text) PangoMarkup can also contain XML features such as numeric character entities such as ``&#169;`` for © can be used too. The most general markup tag is ``<span>``, then there are some convenience tags. Here is a list of supported tags: - ``<b>bold</b>``, ``<i>italic</i>`` and ``<b><i>bold+italic</i></b>`` - ``<ul>underline</ul>`` and ``<s>strike through</s>`` - ``<tt>typewriter font</tt>`` - ``<big>bigger font</big>`` and ``<small>smaller font</small>`` - ``<sup>superscript</sup>`` and ``<sub>subscript</sub>`` - ``<span underline="double" underline_color="green">double underline</span>`` - ``<span underline="error">error underline</span>`` - ``<span overline="single" overline_color="green">overline</span>`` - ``<span strikethrough="true" strikethrough_color="red">strikethrough</span>`` - ``<span font_family="sans">temporary change of font</span>`` - ``<span foreground="red">temporary change of color</span>`` - ``<span fgcolor="red">temporary change of color</span>`` - ``<gradient from="YELLOW" to="RED">temporary gradient</gradient>`` For ``<span>`` markup, colors can be specified either as hex triples like ``#aabbcc`` or as named CSS colors like ``AliceBlue``. The ``<gradient>`` tag is handled by Manim rather than Pango, and supports hex triplets or Manim constants like ``RED`` or ``RED_A``. If you want to use Manim constants like ``RED_A`` together with ``<span>``, you will need to use Python's f-String syntax as follows:: MarkupText(f'<span foreground="{RED_A}">here you go</span>') If your text contains ligatures, the :class:`MarkupText` class may incorrectly determine the first and last letter when creating the gradient. This is due to the fact that ``fl`` are two separate characters, but might be set as one single glyph - a ligature. If your language does not depend on ligatures, consider setting ``disable_ligatures`` to ``True``. If you must use ligatures, the ``gradient`` tag supports an optional attribute ``offset`` which can be used to compensate for that error. For example: - ``<gradient from="RED" to="YELLOW" offset="1">example</gradient>`` to *start* the gradient one letter earlier - ``<gradient from="RED" to="YELLOW" offset=",1">example</gradient>`` to *end* the gradient one letter earlier - ``<gradient from="RED" to="YELLOW" offset="2,1">example</gradient>`` to *start* the gradient two letters earlier and *end* it one letter earlier Specifying a second offset may be necessary if the text to be colored does itself contain ligatures. The same can happen when using HTML entities for special chars. When using ``underline``, ``overline`` or ``strikethrough`` together with ``<gradient>`` tags, you will also need to use the offset, because underlines are additional paths in the final :class:`SVGMobject`. Check out the following example. Escaping of special characters: ``>`` **should** be written as ``&gt;`` whereas ``<`` and ``&`` *must* be written as ``&lt;`` and ``&amp;``. You can find more information about Pango markup formatting at the corresponding documentation page: `Pango Markup <https://developer.gnome.org/pango/stable/pango-Markup.html>`_. Please be aware that not all features are supported by this class and that the ``<gradient>`` tag mentioned above is not supported by Pango. Parameters ---------- text : :class:`str` The text that need to created as mobject. fill_opacity : :class:`int` The fill opacity with 1 meaning opaque and 0 meaning transparent. stroke_width : :class:`int` Stroke width. color : :class:`str` Global color setting for the entire text. Local overrides are possible. font_size : :class:`float` Font size. line_spacing : :class:`int` Line spacing. font : :class:`str` Global font setting for the entire text. Local overrides are possible. slant : :class:`str` Global slant setting, e.g. `NORMAL` or `ITALIC`. Local overrides are possible. weight : :class:`str` Global weight setting, e.g. `NORMAL` or `BOLD`. Local overrides are possible. gradient: :class:`tuple` Global gradient setting. Local overrides are possible. Returns ------- :class:`MarkupText` The text displayed in form of a :class:`.VGroup`-like mobject. Examples --------- .. manim:: BasicMarkupExample :save_last_frame: class BasicMarkupExample(Scene): def construct(self): text1 = MarkupText("<b>foo</b> <i>bar</i> <b><i>foobar</i></b>") text2 = MarkupText("<s>foo</s> <u>bar</u> <big>big</big> <small>small</small>") text3 = MarkupText("H<sub>2</sub>O and H<sub>3</sub>O<sup>+</sup>") text4 = MarkupText("type <tt>help</tt> for help") text5 = MarkupText( '<span underline="double">foo</span> <span underline="error">bar</span>' ) group = VGroup(text1, text2, text3, text4, text5).arrange(DOWN) self.add(group) .. manim:: ColorExample :save_last_frame: class ColorExample(Scene): def construct(self): text1 = MarkupText( f'all in red <span fgcolor="{YELLOW}">except this</span>', color=RED ) text2 = MarkupText("nice gradient", gradient=(BLUE, GREEN)) text3 = MarkupText( 'nice <gradient from="RED" to="YELLOW">intermediate</gradient> gradient', gradient=(BLUE, GREEN), ) text4 = MarkupText( 'fl ligature <gradient from="RED" to="YELLOW">causing trouble</gradient> here' ) text5 = MarkupText( 'fl ligature <gradient from="RED" to="YELLOW" offset="1">defeated</gradient> with offset' ) text6 = MarkupText( 'fl ligature <gradient from="RED" to="YELLOW" offset="1">floating</gradient> inside' ) text7 = MarkupText( 'fl ligature <gradient from="RED" to="YELLOW" offset="1,1">floating</gradient> inside' ) group = VGroup(text1, text2, text3, text4, text5, text6, text7).arrange(DOWN) self.add(group) .. manim:: UnderlineExample :save_last_frame: class UnderlineExample(Scene): def construct(self): text1 = MarkupText( '<span underline="double" underline_color="green">bla</span>' ) text2 = MarkupText( '<span underline="single" underline_color="green">xxx</span><gradient from="#ffff00" to="RED">aabb</gradient>y' ) text3 = MarkupText( '<span underline="single" underline_color="green">xxx</span><gradient from="#ffff00" to="RED" offset="-1">aabb</gradient>y' ) text4 = MarkupText( '<span underline="double" underline_color="green">xxx</span><gradient from="#ffff00" to="RED">aabb</gradient>y' ) text5 = MarkupText( '<span underline="double" underline_color="green">xxx</span><gradient from="#ffff00" to="RED" offset="-2">aabb</gradient>y' ) group = VGroup(text1, text2, text3, text4, text5).arrange(DOWN) self.add(group) .. manim:: FontExample :save_last_frame: class FontExample(Scene): def construct(self): text1 = MarkupText( 'all in sans <span font_family="serif">except this</span>', font="sans" ) text2 = MarkupText( '<span font_family="serif">mixing</span> <span font_family="sans">fonts</span> <span font_family="monospace">is ugly</span>' ) text3 = MarkupText("special char > or &gt;") text4 = MarkupText("special char &lt; and &amp;") group = VGroup(text1, text2, text3, text4).arrange(DOWN) self.add(group) .. manim:: NewlineExample :save_last_frame: class NewlineExample(Scene): def construct(self): text = MarkupText('foooo<span foreground="red">oo\nbaa</span>aar') self.add(text) .. manim:: NoLigaturesExample :save_last_frame: class NoLigaturesExample(Scene): def construct(self): text1 = MarkupText('fl<gradient from="RED" to="GREEN">oat</gradient>ing') text2 = MarkupText('fl<gradient from="RED" to="GREEN">oat</gradient>ing', disable_ligatures=True) group = VGroup(text1, text2).arrange(DOWN) self.add(group) As :class:`MarkupText` uses Pango to render text, rendering non-English characters is easily possible: .. manim:: MultiLanguage :save_last_frame: class MultiLanguage(Scene): def construct(self): morning = MarkupText("வணக்கம்", font="sans-serif") japanese = MarkupText( '<span fgcolor="blue">日本</span>へようこそ' ) # works as in ``Text``. mess = MarkupText("Multi-Language", weight=BOLD) russ = MarkupText("Здравствуйте मस नम म ", font="sans-serif") hin = MarkupText("नमस्ते", font="sans-serif") chinese = MarkupText("臂猿「黛比」帶著孩子", font="sans-serif") group = VGroup(morning, japanese, mess, russ, hin, chinese).arrange(DOWN) self.add(group) You can justify the text by passing :attr:`justify` parameter. .. manim:: JustifyText class JustifyText(Scene): def construct(self): ipsum_text = ( "Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit." "Praesent feugiat metus sit amet iaculis pulvinar. Nulla posuere " "quam a ex aliquam, eleifend consectetur tellus viverra. Aliquam " "fermentum interdum justo, nec rutrum elit pretium ac. Nam quis " "leo pulvinar, dignissim est at, venenatis nisi. Quisque mattis " "dolor ut euismod hendrerit. Nullam eu ante sollicitudin, commodo " "risus a, vehicula odio. Nam urna tortor, aliquam a nibh eu, commodo " "imperdiet arcu. Donec tincidunt commodo enim a tincidunt." ) justified_text = MarkupText(ipsum_text, justify=True).scale(0.4) not_justified_text = MarkupText(ipsum_text, justify=False).scale(0.4) just_title = Title("Justified") njust_title = Title("Not Justified") self.add(njust_title, not_justified_text) self.play( Transform( not_justified_text, justified_text, ), Transform( njust_title, just_title, ), run_time=2, ) self.wait(1) Tests ----- Check that the creation of :class:`~.MarkupText` works:: >>> MarkupText('The horse does not eat cucumber salad.') MarkupText('The horse does not eat cucumber salad.') """ def __init__( self, text: str, fill_opacity: float = 1, stroke_width: float = 0, color: Color = WHITE, font_size: float = DEFAULT_FONT_SIZE, line_spacing: int = -1, font: str = "", slant: str = NORMAL, weight: str = NORMAL, justify: bool = False, gradient: tuple = None, tab_width: int = 4, height: int = None, width: int = None, should_center: bool = True, unpack_groups: bool = True, disable_ligatures: bool = False, **kwargs, ): self.text = text self.color = color self.line_spacing = line_spacing self.font = font self._font_size = float(font_size) self.slant = slant self.weight = weight self.gradient = gradient self.tab_width = tab_width self.justify = justify self.original_text = text self.disable_ligatures = disable_ligatures text_without_tabs = text if "\t" in text: text_without_tabs = text.replace("\t", " " * self.tab_width) colormap = self.extract_color_tags() if len(colormap) > 0: logger.warning( 'Using <color> tags in MarkupText is deprecated. Please use <span foreground="..."> instead.', ) gradientmap = self.extract_gradient_tags() validate_error = MarkupUtils.validate(self.text) if validate_error: raise ValueError(validate_error) if self.line_spacing == -1: self.line_spacing = ( self._font_size + self._font_size * DEFAULT_LINE_SPACING_SCALE ) else: self.line_spacing = self._font_size + self._font_size * self.line_spacing file_name = self.text2svg() PangoUtils.remove_last_M(file_name) super().__init__( file_name, fill_opacity=fill_opacity, stroke_width=stroke_width, height=height, width=width, should_center=should_center, unpack_groups=unpack_groups, **kwargs, ) self.chars = self.get_group_class()(*self.submobjects) self.text = text_without_tabs.replace(" ", "").replace("\n", "") if config.renderer == "opengl": nppc = self.n_points_per_curve else: nppc = self.n_points_per_cubic_curve for each in self: if len(each.points) == 0: continue points = each.points last = points[0] each.clear_points() for index, point in enumerate(points): each.append_points([point]) if ( index != len(points) - 1 and (index + 1) % nppc == 0 and any(point != points[index + 1]) ): each.add_line_to(last) last = points[index + 1] each.add_line_to(last) if self.gradient: self.set_color_by_gradient(*self.gradient) for col in colormap: self.chars[ col["start"] - col["start_offset"] : col["end"] - col["start_offset"] - col["end_offset"] ].set_color(self._parse_color(col["color"])) for grad in gradientmap: self.chars[ grad["start"] - grad["start_offset"] : grad["end"] - grad["start_offset"] - grad["end_offset"] ].set_color_by_gradient( *(self._parse_color(grad["from"]), self._parse_color(grad["to"])) ) # anti-aliasing if height is None and width is None: self.scale(TEXT_MOB_SCALE_FACTOR) self.initial_height = self.height @property def font_size(self): return ( self.height / self.initial_height / TEXT_MOB_SCALE_FACTOR * 2.4 * self._font_size / DEFAULT_FONT_SIZE ) @font_size.setter def font_size(self, font_val): # TODO: use pango's font size scaling. if font_val <= 0: raise ValueError("font_size must be greater than 0.") else: self.scale(font_val / self.font_size)
[docs] def text2hash(self): """Generates ``sha256`` hash for file name.""" settings = ( "MARKUPPANGO" + self.font + self.slant + self.weight + self.color ) # to differentiate from classical Pango Text settings += str(self.line_spacing) + str(self._font_size) settings += str(self.disable_ligatures) settings += str(self.justify) id_str = self.text + settings hasher = hashlib.sha256() hasher.update(id_str.encode()) return hasher.hexdigest()[:16]
[docs] def text2svg(self): """Convert the text to SVG using Pango.""" size = self._font_size line_spacing = self.line_spacing size /= TEXT2SVG_ADJUSTMENT_FACTOR line_spacing /= TEXT2SVG_ADJUSTMENT_FACTOR dir_name = config.get_dir("text_dir") if not os.path.exists(dir_name): os.makedirs(dir_name) hash_name = self.text2hash() file_name = os.path.join(dir_name, hash_name) + ".svg" if os.path.exists(file_name): svg_file = file_name else: logger.debug(f"Setting Text {self.text}") svg_file = MarkupUtils.text2svg( f'<span foreground="{self.color}">{self.text}</span>', self.font, self.slant, self.weight, size, line_spacing, self.disable_ligatures, file_name, START_X, START_Y, 600, # width 400, # height justify=self.justify, pango_width=500, ) return svg_file
def _count_real_chars(self, s): """Counts characters that will be displayed. This is needed for partial coloring or gradients, because space counts to the text's `len`, but has no corresponding character.""" count = 0 level = 0 # temporarily replace HTML entities by single char s = re.sub("&[^;]+;", "x", s) for c in s: if c == "<": level += 1 if c == ">" and level > 0: level -= 1 elif c != " " and c != "\t" and level == 0: count += 1 return count
[docs] def extract_gradient_tags(self): """Used to determine which parts (if any) of the string should be formatted with a gradient. Removes the ``<gradient>`` tag, as it is not part of Pango's markup and would cause an error. """ tags = re.finditer( r'<gradient\s+from="([^"]+)"\s+to="([^"]+)"(\s+offset="([^"]+)")?>(.+?)</gradient>', self.original_text, re.S, ) gradientmap = [] for tag in tags: start = self._count_real_chars(self.original_text[: tag.start(0)]) end = start + self._count_real_chars(tag.group(5)) offsets = tag.group(4).split(",") if tag.group(4) else [0] start_offset = int(offsets[0]) if offsets[0] else 0 end_offset = int(offsets[1]) if len(offsets) == 2 and offsets[1] else 0 gradientmap.append( { "start": start, "end": end, "from": tag.group(1), "to": tag.group(2), "start_offset": start_offset, "end_offset": end_offset, }, ) self.text = re.sub("<gradient[^>]+>(.+?)</gradient>", r"\1", self.text, 0, re.S) return gradientmap
def _parse_color(self, col): """Parse color given in ``<color>`` or ``<gradient>`` tags.""" if re.match("#[0-9a-f]{6}", col): return col else: return Colors[col.lower()].value
[docs] def extract_color_tags(self): """Used to determine which parts (if any) of the string should be formatted with a custom color. Removes the ``<color>`` tag, as it is not part of Pango's markup and would cause an error. Note: Using the ``<color>`` tags is deprecated. As soon as the legacy syntax is gone, this function will be removed. """ tags = re.finditer( r'<color\s+col="([^"]+)"(\s+offset="([^"]+)")?>(.+?)</color>', self.original_text, re.S, ) colormap = [] for tag in tags: start = self._count_real_chars(self.original_text[: tag.start(0)]) end = start + self._count_real_chars(tag.group(4)) offsets = tag.group(3).split(",") if tag.group(3) else [0] start_offset = int(offsets[0]) if offsets[0] else 0 end_offset = int(offsets[1]) if len(offsets) == 2 and offsets[1] else 0 colormap.append( { "start": start, "end": end, "color": tag.group(1), "start_offset": start_offset, "end_offset": end_offset, }, ) self.text = re.sub("<color[^>]+>(.+?)</color>", r"\1", self.text, 0, re.S) return colormap
def __repr__(self): return f"MarkupText({repr(self.original_text)})"
[docs]@contextmanager def register_font(font_file: Union[str, Path]): """Temporarily add a font file to Pango's search path. This searches for the font_file at various places. The order it searches it described below. 1. Absolute path. 2. In ``assets/fonts`` folder. 3. In ``font/`` folder. 4. In the same directory. Parameters ---------- font_file : The font file to add. Examples -------- Use ``with register_font(...)`` to add a font file to search path. .. code-block:: python with register_font("path/to/font_file.ttf"): a = Text("Hello", font="Custom Font Name") Raises ------ FileNotFoundError: If the font doesn't exists. AttributeError: If this method is used on macOS. .. important :: This method is available for macOS for ``ManimPango>=v0.2.3``. Using this method with previous releases will raise an :class:`AttributeError` on macOS. """ input_folder = Path(config.input_file).parent.resolve() possible_paths = [ Path(font_file), input_folder / "assets/fonts" / font_file, input_folder / "fonts" / font_file, input_folder / font_file, ] for path in possible_paths: path = path.resolve() if path.exists(): file_path = path logger.debug("Found file at %s", file_path.absolute()) break else: error = f"Can't find {font_file}." f"Tried these : {possible_paths}" raise FileNotFoundError(error) try: assert manimpango.register_font(str(file_path)) yield finally: manimpango.unregister_font(str(file_path))