Source code for manim.scene.scene

"""Basic canvas for animations."""

from __future__ import annotations

from manim.utils.parameter_parsing import flatten_iterable_parameters

__all__ = ["Scene"]

import copy
import datetime
import inspect
import platform
import random
import threading
import time
import types
from queue import Queue

import srt

from manim.scene.section import DefaultSectionType

try:
    import dearpygui.dearpygui as dpg

    dearpygui_imported = True
except ImportError:
    dearpygui_imported = False
from typing import TYPE_CHECKING

import numpy as np
from tqdm import tqdm
from watchdog.events import FileSystemEventHandler
from watchdog.observers import Observer

from manim.mobject.mobject import Mobject
from manim.mobject.opengl.opengl_mobject import OpenGLPoint

from .. import config, logger
from ..animation.animation import Animation, Wait, prepare_animation
from ..camera.camera import Camera
from ..constants import *
from ..gui.gui import configure_pygui
from ..renderer.cairo_renderer import CairoRenderer
from ..renderer.opengl_renderer import OpenGLRenderer
from ..renderer.shader import Object3D
from ..utils import opengl, space_ops
from ..utils.exceptions import EndSceneEarlyException, RerunSceneException
from ..utils.family import extract_mobject_family_members
from ..utils.family_ops import restructure_list_to_exclude_certain_family_members
from ..utils.file_ops import open_media_file
from ..utils.iterables import list_difference_update, list_update

if TYPE_CHECKING:
    from typing import Callable, Iterable


[docs] class RerunSceneHandler(FileSystemEventHandler): """A class to handle rerunning a Scene after the input file is modified.""" def __init__(self, queue): super().__init__() self.queue = queue
[docs] def on_modified(self, event): self.queue.put(("rerun_file", [], {}))
[docs] class Scene: """A Scene is the canvas of your animation. The primary role of :class:`Scene` is to provide the user with tools to manage mobjects and animations. Generally speaking, a manim script consists of a class that derives from :class:`Scene` whose :meth:`Scene.construct` method is overridden by the user's code. Mobjects are displayed on screen by calling :meth:`Scene.add` and removed from screen by calling :meth:`Scene.remove`. All mobjects currently on screen are kept in :attr:`Scene.mobjects`. Animations are played by calling :meth:`Scene.play`. A :class:`Scene` is rendered internally by calling :meth:`Scene.render`. This in turn calls :meth:`Scene.setup`, :meth:`Scene.construct`, and :meth:`Scene.tear_down`, in that order. It is not recommended to override the ``__init__`` method in user Scenes. For code that should be ran before a Scene is rendered, use :meth:`Scene.setup` instead. Examples -------- Override the :meth:`Scene.construct` method with your code. .. code-block:: python class MyScene(Scene): def construct(self): self.play(Write(Text("Hello World!"))) """ def __init__( self, renderer=None, camera_class=Camera, always_update_mobjects=False, random_seed=None, skip_animations=False, ): self.camera_class = camera_class self.always_update_mobjects = always_update_mobjects self.random_seed = random_seed self.skip_animations = skip_animations self.animations = None self.stop_condition = None self.moving_mobjects = [] self.static_mobjects = [] self.time_progression = None self.duration = None self.last_t = None self.queue = Queue() self.skip_animation_preview = False self.meshes = [] self.camera_target = ORIGIN self.widgets = [] self.dearpygui_imported = dearpygui_imported self.updaters = [] self.point_lights = [] self.ambient_light = None self.key_to_function_map = {} self.mouse_press_callbacks = [] self.interactive_mode = False if config.renderer == RendererType.OPENGL: # Items associated with interaction self.mouse_point = OpenGLPoint() self.mouse_drag_point = OpenGLPoint() if renderer is None: renderer = OpenGLRenderer() if renderer is None: self.renderer = CairoRenderer( camera_class=self.camera_class, skip_animations=self.skip_animations, ) else: self.renderer = renderer self.renderer.init_scene(self) self.mobjects = [] # TODO, remove need for foreground mobjects self.foreground_mobjects = [] if self.random_seed is not None: random.seed(self.random_seed) np.random.seed(self.random_seed) @property def camera(self): return self.renderer.camera def __deepcopy__(self, clone_from_id): cls = self.__class__ result = cls.__new__(cls) clone_from_id[id(self)] = result for k, v in self.__dict__.items(): if k in ["renderer", "time_progression"]: continue if k == "camera_class": setattr(result, k, v) setattr(result, k, copy.deepcopy(v, clone_from_id)) result.mobject_updater_lists = [] # Update updaters for mobject in self.mobjects: cloned_updaters = [] for updater in mobject.updaters: # Make the cloned updater use the cloned Mobjects as free variables # rather than the original ones. Analyzing function bytecode with the # dis module will help in understanding this. # https://docs.python.org/3/library/dis.html # TODO: Do the same for function calls recursively. free_variable_map = inspect.getclosurevars(updater).nonlocals cloned_co_freevars = [] cloned_closure = [] for free_variable_name in updater.__code__.co_freevars: free_variable_value = free_variable_map[free_variable_name] # If the referenced variable has not been cloned, raise. if id(free_variable_value) not in clone_from_id: raise Exception( f"{free_variable_name} is referenced from an updater " "but is not an attribute of the Scene, which isn't " "allowed.", ) # Add the cloned object's name to the free variable list. cloned_co_freevars.append(free_variable_name) # Add a cell containing the cloned object's reference to the # closure list. cloned_closure.append( types.CellType(clone_from_id[id(free_variable_value)]), ) cloned_updater = types.FunctionType( updater.__code__.replace(co_freevars=tuple(cloned_co_freevars)), updater.__globals__, updater.__name__, updater.__defaults__, tuple(cloned_closure), ) cloned_updaters.append(cloned_updater) mobject_clone = clone_from_id[id(mobject)] mobject_clone.updaters = cloned_updaters if len(cloned_updaters) > 0: result.mobject_updater_lists.append((mobject_clone, cloned_updaters)) return result
[docs] def render(self, preview: bool = False): """ Renders this Scene. Parameters --------- preview If true, opens scene in a file viewer. """ self.setup() try: self.construct() except EndSceneEarlyException: pass except RerunSceneException as e: self.remove(*self.mobjects) self.renderer.clear_screen() self.renderer.num_plays = 0 return True self.tear_down() # We have to reset these settings in case of multiple renders. self.renderer.scene_finished(self) # Show info only if animations are rendered or to get image if ( self.renderer.num_plays or config["format"] == "png" or config["save_last_frame"] ): logger.info( f"Rendered {str(self)}\nPlayed {self.renderer.num_plays} animations", ) # If preview open up the render after rendering. if preview: config["preview"] = True if config["preview"] or config["show_in_file_browser"]: open_media_file(self.renderer.file_writer)
[docs] def setup(self): """ This is meant to be implemented by any scenes which are commonly subclassed, and have some common setup involved before the construct method is called. """ pass
[docs] def tear_down(self): """ This is meant to be implemented by any scenes which are commonly subclassed, and have some common method to be invoked before the scene ends. """ pass
[docs] def construct(self): """Add content to the Scene. From within :meth:`Scene.construct`, display mobjects on screen by calling :meth:`Scene.add` and remove them from screen by calling :meth:`Scene.remove`. All mobjects currently on screen are kept in :attr:`Scene.mobjects`. Play animations by calling :meth:`Scene.play`. Notes ----- Initialization code should go in :meth:`Scene.setup`. Termination code should go in :meth:`Scene.tear_down`. Examples -------- A typical manim script includes a class derived from :class:`Scene` with an overridden :meth:`Scene.construct` method: .. code-block:: python class MyScene(Scene): def construct(self): self.play(Write(Text("Hello World!"))) See Also -------- :meth:`Scene.setup` :meth:`Scene.render` :meth:`Scene.tear_down` """ pass # To be implemented in subclasses
[docs] def next_section( self, name: str = "unnamed", type: str = DefaultSectionType.NORMAL, skip_animations: bool = False, ) -> None: """Create separation here; the last section gets finished and a new one gets created. ``skip_animations`` skips the rendering of all animations in this section. Refer to :doc:`the documentation</tutorials/output_and_config>` on how to use sections. """ self.renderer.file_writer.next_section(name, type, skip_animations)
def __str__(self): return self.__class__.__name__
[docs] def get_attrs(self, *keys: str): """ Gets attributes of a scene given the attribute's identifier/name. Parameters ---------- *keys Name(s) of the argument(s) to return the attribute of. Returns ------- list List of attributes of the passed identifiers. """ return [getattr(self, key) for key in keys]
[docs] def update_mobjects(self, dt: float): """ Begins updating all mobjects in the Scene. Parameters ---------- dt Change in time between updates. Defaults (mostly) to 1/frames_per_second """ for mobject in self.mobjects: mobject.update(dt)
def update_meshes(self, dt): for obj in self.meshes: for mesh in obj.get_family(): mesh.update(dt)
[docs] def update_self(self, dt: float): """Run all scene updater functions. Among all types of update functions (mobject updaters, mesh updaters, scene updaters), scene update functions are called last. Parameters ---------- dt Scene time since last update. See Also -------- :meth:`.Scene.add_updater` :meth:`.Scene.remove_updater` """ for func in self.updaters: func(dt)
[docs] def should_update_mobjects(self) -> bool: """ Returns True if the mobjects of this scene should be updated. In particular, this checks whether - the :attr:`always_update_mobjects` attribute of :class:`.Scene` is set to ``True``, - the :class:`.Scene` itself has time-based updaters attached, - any mobject in this :class:`.Scene` has time-based updaters attached. This is only called when a single Wait animation is played. """ wait_animation = self.animations[0] if wait_animation.is_static_wait is None: should_update = ( self.always_update_mobjects or self.updaters or wait_animation.stop_condition is not None or any( mob.has_time_based_updater() for mob in self.get_mobject_family_members() ) ) wait_animation.is_static_wait = not should_update return not wait_animation.is_static_wait
[docs] def get_top_level_mobjects(self): """ Returns all mobjects which are not submobjects. Returns ------- list List of top level mobjects. """ # Return only those which are not in the family # of another mobject from the scene families = [m.get_family() for m in self.mobjects] def is_top_level(mobject): num_families = sum((mobject in family) for family in families) return num_families == 1 return list(filter(is_top_level, self.mobjects))
[docs] def get_mobject_family_members(self): """ Returns list of family-members of all mobjects in scene. If a Circle() and a VGroup(Rectangle(),Triangle()) were added, it returns not only the Circle(), Rectangle() and Triangle(), but also the VGroup() object. Returns ------- list List of mobject family members. """ if config.renderer == RendererType.OPENGL: family_members = [] for mob in self.mobjects: family_members.extend(mob.get_family()) return family_members elif config.renderer == RendererType.CAIRO: return extract_mobject_family_members( self.mobjects, use_z_index=self.renderer.camera.use_z_index, )
[docs] def add(self, *mobjects: Mobject): """ Mobjects will be displayed, from background to foreground in the order with which they are added. Parameters --------- *mobjects Mobjects to add. Returns ------- Scene The same scene after adding the Mobjects in. """ if config.renderer == RendererType.OPENGL: new_mobjects = [] new_meshes = [] for mobject_or_mesh in mobjects: if isinstance(mobject_or_mesh, Object3D): new_meshes.append(mobject_or_mesh) else: new_mobjects.append(mobject_or_mesh) self.remove(*new_mobjects) self.mobjects += new_mobjects self.remove(*new_meshes) self.meshes += new_meshes elif config.renderer == RendererType.CAIRO: mobjects = [*mobjects, *self.foreground_mobjects] self.restructure_mobjects(to_remove=mobjects) self.mobjects += mobjects if self.moving_mobjects: self.restructure_mobjects( to_remove=mobjects, mobject_list_name="moving_mobjects", ) self.moving_mobjects += mobjects return self
def add_mobjects_from_animations(self, animations): curr_mobjects = self.get_mobject_family_members() for animation in animations: if animation.is_introducer(): continue # Anything animated that's not already in the # scene gets added to the scene mob = animation.mobject if mob is not None and mob not in curr_mobjects: self.add(mob) curr_mobjects += mob.get_family()
[docs] def remove(self, *mobjects: Mobject): """ Removes mobjects in the passed list of mobjects from the scene and the foreground, by removing them from "mobjects" and "foreground_mobjects" Parameters ---------- *mobjects The mobjects to remove. """ if config.renderer == RendererType.OPENGL: mobjects_to_remove = [] meshes_to_remove = set() for mobject_or_mesh in mobjects: if isinstance(mobject_or_mesh, Object3D): meshes_to_remove.add(mobject_or_mesh) else: mobjects_to_remove.append(mobject_or_mesh) self.mobjects = restructure_list_to_exclude_certain_family_members( self.mobjects, mobjects_to_remove, ) self.meshes = list( filter(lambda mesh: mesh not in set(meshes_to_remove), self.meshes), ) return self elif config.renderer == RendererType.CAIRO: for list_name in "mobjects", "foreground_mobjects": self.restructure_mobjects(mobjects, list_name, False) return self
[docs] def replace(self, old_mobject: Mobject, new_mobject: Mobject) -> None: """Replace one mobject in the scene with another, preserving draw order. If ``old_mobject`` is a submobject of some other Mobject (e.g. a :class:`.Group`), the new_mobject will replace it inside the group, without otherwise changing the parent mobject. Parameters ---------- old_mobject The mobject to be replaced. Must be present in the scene. new_mobject A mobject which must not already be in the scene. """ if old_mobject is None or new_mobject is None: raise ValueError("Specified mobjects cannot be None") def replace_in_list( mobj_list: list[Mobject], old_m: Mobject, new_m: Mobject ) -> bool: # We use breadth-first search because some Mobjects get very deep and # we expect top-level elements to be the most common targets for replace. for i in range(0, len(mobj_list)): # Is this the old mobject? if mobj_list[i] == old_m: # If so, write the new object to the same spot and stop looking. mobj_list[i] = new_m return True # Now check all the children of all these mobs. for mob in mobj_list: # noqa: SIM110 if replace_in_list(mob.submobjects, old_m, new_m): # If we found it in a submobject, stop looking. return True # If we did not find the mobject in the mobject list or any submobjects, # (or the list was empty), indicate we did not make the replacement. return False # Make use of short-circuiting conditionals to check mobjects and then # foreground_mobjects replaced = replace_in_list( self.mobjects, old_mobject, new_mobject ) or replace_in_list(self.foreground_mobjects, old_mobject, new_mobject) if not replaced: raise ValueError(f"Could not find {old_mobject} in scene")
[docs] def add_updater(self, func: Callable[[float], None]) -> None: """Add an update function to the scene. The scene updater functions are run every frame, and they are the last type of updaters to run. .. WARNING:: When using the Cairo renderer, scene updaters that modify mobjects are not detected in the same way that mobject updaters are. To be more concrete, a mobject only modified via a scene updater will not necessarily be added to the list of *moving mobjects* and thus might not be updated every frame. TL;DR: Use mobject updaters to update mobjects. Parameters ---------- func The updater function. It takes a float, which is the time difference since the last update (usually equal to the frame rate). See also -------- :meth:`.Scene.remove_updater` :meth:`.Scene.update_self` """ self.updaters.append(func)
[docs] def remove_updater(self, func: Callable[[float], None]) -> None: """Remove an update function from the scene. Parameters ---------- func The updater function to be removed. See also -------- :meth:`.Scene.add_updater` :meth:`.Scene.update_self` """ self.updaters = [f for f in self.updaters if f is not func]
[docs] def restructure_mobjects( self, to_remove: Mobject, mobject_list_name: str = "mobjects", extract_families: bool = True, ): """ tl:wr If your scene has a Group(), and you removed a mobject from the Group, this dissolves the group and puts the rest of the mobjects directly in self.mobjects or self.foreground_mobjects. In cases where the scene contains a group, e.g. Group(m1, m2, m3), but one of its submobjects is removed, e.g. scene.remove(m1), the list of mobjects will be edited to contain other submobjects, but not m1, e.g. it will now insert m2 and m3 to where the group once was. Parameters ---------- to_remove The Mobject to remove. mobject_list_name The list of mobjects ("mobjects", "foreground_mobjects" etc) to remove from. extract_families Whether the mobject's families should be recursively extracted. Returns ------- Scene The Scene mobject with restructured Mobjects. """ if extract_families: to_remove = extract_mobject_family_members( to_remove, use_z_index=self.renderer.camera.use_z_index, ) _list = getattr(self, mobject_list_name) new_list = self.get_restructured_mobject_list(_list, to_remove) setattr(self, mobject_list_name, new_list) return self
[docs] def get_restructured_mobject_list(self, mobjects: list, to_remove: list): """ Given a list of mobjects and a list of mobjects to be removed, this filters out the removable mobjects from the list of mobjects. Parameters ---------- mobjects The Mobjects to check. to_remove The list of mobjects to remove. Returns ------- list The list of mobjects with the mobjects to remove removed. """ new_mobjects = [] def add_safe_mobjects_from_list(list_to_examine, set_to_remove): for mob in list_to_examine: if mob in set_to_remove: continue intersect = set_to_remove.intersection(mob.get_family()) if intersect: add_safe_mobjects_from_list(mob.submobjects, intersect) else: new_mobjects.append(mob) add_safe_mobjects_from_list(mobjects, set(to_remove)) return new_mobjects
# TODO, remove this, and calls to this
[docs] def add_foreground_mobjects(self, *mobjects: Mobject): """ Adds mobjects to the foreground, and internally to the list foreground_mobjects, and mobjects. Parameters ---------- *mobjects The Mobjects to add to the foreground. Returns ------ Scene The Scene, with the foreground mobjects added. """ self.foreground_mobjects = list_update(self.foreground_mobjects, mobjects) self.add(*mobjects) return self
[docs] def add_foreground_mobject(self, mobject: Mobject): """ Adds a single mobject to the foreground, and internally to the list foreground_mobjects, and mobjects. Parameters ---------- mobject The Mobject to add to the foreground. Returns ------ Scene The Scene, with the foreground mobject added. """ return self.add_foreground_mobjects(mobject)
[docs] def remove_foreground_mobjects(self, *to_remove: Mobject): """ Removes mobjects from the foreground, and internally from the list foreground_mobjects. Parameters ---------- *to_remove The mobject(s) to remove from the foreground. Returns ------ Scene The Scene, with the foreground mobjects removed. """ self.restructure_mobjects(to_remove, "foreground_mobjects") return self
[docs] def remove_foreground_mobject(self, mobject: Mobject): """ Removes a single mobject from the foreground, and internally from the list foreground_mobjects. Parameters ---------- mobject The mobject to remove from the foreground. Returns ------ Scene The Scene, with the foreground mobject removed. """ return self.remove_foreground_mobjects(mobject)
[docs] def bring_to_front(self, *mobjects: Mobject): """ Adds the passed mobjects to the scene again, pushing them to he front of the scene. Parameters ---------- *mobjects The mobject(s) to bring to the front of the scene. Returns ------ Scene The Scene, with the mobjects brought to the front of the scene. """ self.add(*mobjects) return self
[docs] def bring_to_back(self, *mobjects: Mobject): """ Removes the mobject from the scene and adds them to the back of the scene. Parameters ---------- *mobjects The mobject(s) to push to the back of the scene. Returns ------ Scene The Scene, with the mobjects pushed to the back of the scene. """ self.remove(*mobjects) self.mobjects = list(mobjects) + self.mobjects return self
[docs] def clear(self): """ Removes all mobjects present in self.mobjects and self.foreground_mobjects from the scene. Returns ------ Scene The Scene, with all of its mobjects in self.mobjects and self.foreground_mobjects removed. """ self.mobjects = [] self.foreground_mobjects = [] return self
[docs] def get_moving_mobjects(self, *animations: Animation): """ Gets all moving mobjects in the passed animation(s). Parameters ---------- *animations The animations to check for moving mobjects. Returns ------ list The list of mobjects that could be moving in the Animation(s) """ # Go through mobjects from start to end, and # as soon as there's one that needs updating of # some kind per frame, return the list from that # point forward. animation_mobjects = [anim.mobject for anim in animations] mobjects = self.get_mobject_family_members() for i, mob in enumerate(mobjects): update_possibilities = [ mob in animation_mobjects, len(mob.get_family_updaters()) > 0, mob in self.foreground_mobjects, ] if any(update_possibilities): return mobjects[i:] return []
def get_moving_and_static_mobjects(self, animations): all_mobjects = list_update(self.mobjects, self.foreground_mobjects) all_mobject_families = extract_mobject_family_members( all_mobjects, use_z_index=self.renderer.camera.use_z_index, only_those_with_points=True, ) moving_mobjects = self.get_moving_mobjects(*animations) all_moving_mobject_families = extract_mobject_family_members( moving_mobjects, use_z_index=self.renderer.camera.use_z_index, ) static_mobjects = list_difference_update( all_mobject_families, all_moving_mobject_families, ) return all_moving_mobject_families, static_mobjects
[docs] def compile_animations( self, *args: Animation | Iterable[Animation] | types.GeneratorType[Animation], **kwargs, ): """ Creates _MethodAnimations from any _AnimationBuilders and updates animation kwargs with kwargs passed to play(). Parameters ---------- *args Animations to be played. **kwargs Configuration for the call to play(). Returns ------- Tuple[:class:`Animation`] Animations to be played. """ animations = [] arg_anims = flatten_iterable_parameters(args) # Allow passing a generator to self.play instead of comma separated arguments for arg in arg_anims: try: animations.append(prepare_animation(arg)) except TypeError: if inspect.ismethod(arg): raise TypeError( "Passing Mobject methods to Scene.play is no longer" " supported. Use Mobject.animate instead.", ) else: raise TypeError( f"Unexpected argument {arg} passed to Scene.play().", ) for animation in animations: for k, v in kwargs.items(): setattr(animation, k, v) return animations
[docs] def _get_animation_time_progression( self, animations: list[Animation], duration: float ): """ You will hardly use this when making your own animations. This method is for Manim's internal use. Uses :func:`~.get_time_progression` to obtain a CommandLine ProgressBar whose ``fill_time`` is dependent on the qualities of the passed Animation, Parameters ---------- animations The list of animations to get the time progression for. duration duration of wait time Returns ------- time_progression The CommandLine Progress Bar. """ if len(animations) == 1 and isinstance(animations[0], Wait): stop_condition = animations[0].stop_condition if stop_condition is not None: time_progression = self.get_time_progression( duration, f"Waiting for {stop_condition.__name__}", n_iterations=-1, # So it doesn't show % progress override_skip_animations=True, ) else: time_progression = self.get_time_progression( duration, f"Waiting {self.renderer.num_plays}", ) else: time_progression = self.get_time_progression( duration, "".join( [ f"Animation {self.renderer.num_plays}: ", str(animations[0]), (", etc." if len(animations) > 1 else ""), ], ), ) return time_progression
[docs] def get_time_progression( self, run_time: float, description, n_iterations: int | None = None, override_skip_animations: bool = False, ): """ You will hardly use this when making your own animations. This method is for Manim's internal use. Returns a CommandLine ProgressBar whose ``fill_time`` is dependent on the ``run_time`` of an animation, the iterations to perform in that animation and a bool saying whether or not to consider the skipped animations. Parameters ---------- run_time The ``run_time`` of the animation. n_iterations The number of iterations in the animation. override_skip_animations Whether or not to show skipped animations in the progress bar. Returns ------- time_progression The CommandLine Progress Bar. """ if self.renderer.skip_animations and not override_skip_animations: times = [run_time] else: step = 1 / config["frame_rate"] times = np.arange(0, run_time, step) time_progression = tqdm( times, desc=description, total=n_iterations, leave=config["progress_bar"] == "leave", ascii=True if platform.system() == "Windows" else None, disable=config["progress_bar"] == "none", ) return time_progression
[docs] def get_run_time(self, animations: list[Animation]): """ Gets the total run time for a list of animations. Parameters ---------- animations A list of the animations whose total ``run_time`` is to be calculated. Returns ------- float The total ``run_time`` of all of the animations in the list. """ if len(animations) == 1 and isinstance(animations[0], Wait): return animations[0].duration else: return np.max([animation.run_time for animation in animations])
[docs] def play( self, *args: Animation | Iterable[Animation] | types.GeneratorType[Animation], subcaption=None, subcaption_duration=None, subcaption_offset=0, **kwargs, ): r"""Plays an animation in this scene. Parameters ---------- args Animations to be played. subcaption The content of the external subcaption that should be added during the animation. subcaption_duration The duration for which the specified subcaption is added. If ``None`` (the default), the run time of the animation is taken. subcaption_offset An offset (in seconds) for the start time of the added subcaption. kwargs All other keywords are passed to the renderer. """ # If we are in interactive embedded mode, make sure this is running on the main thread (required for OpenGL) if ( self.interactive_mode and config.renderer == RendererType.OPENGL and threading.current_thread().name != "MainThread" ): kwargs.update( { "subcaption": subcaption, "subcaption_duration": subcaption_duration, "subcaption_offset": subcaption_offset, } ) self.queue.put( ( "play", args, kwargs, ) ) return start_time = self.renderer.time self.renderer.play(self, *args, **kwargs) run_time = self.renderer.time - start_time if subcaption: if subcaption_duration is None: subcaption_duration = run_time # The start of the subcaption needs to be offset by the # run_time of the animation because it is added after # the animation has already been played (and Scene.renderer.time # has already been updated). self.add_subcaption( content=subcaption, duration=subcaption_duration, offset=-run_time + subcaption_offset, )
[docs] def wait( self, duration: float = DEFAULT_WAIT_TIME, stop_condition: Callable[[], bool] | None = None, frozen_frame: bool | None = None, ): """Plays a "no operation" animation. Parameters ---------- duration The run time of the animation. stop_condition A function without positional arguments that is evaluated every time a frame is rendered. The animation only stops when the return value of the function is truthy, or when the time specified in ``duration`` passes. frozen_frame If True, updater functions are not evaluated, and the animation outputs a frozen frame. If False, updater functions are called and frames are rendered as usual. If None (the default), the scene tries to determine whether or not the frame is frozen on its own. See also -------- :class:`.Wait`, :meth:`.should_mobjects_update` """ self.play( Wait( run_time=duration, stop_condition=stop_condition, frozen_frame=frozen_frame, ) )
[docs] def pause(self, duration: float = DEFAULT_WAIT_TIME): """Pauses the scene (i.e., displays a frozen frame). This is an alias for :meth:`.wait` with ``frozen_frame`` set to ``True``. Parameters ---------- duration The duration of the pause. See also -------- :meth:`.wait`, :class:`.Wait` """ self.wait(duration=duration, frozen_frame=True)
[docs] def wait_until(self, stop_condition: Callable[[], bool], max_time: float = 60): """Wait until a condition is satisfied, up to a given maximum duration. Parameters ---------- stop_condition A function with no arguments that determines whether or not the scene should keep waiting. max_time The maximum wait time in seconds. """ self.wait(max_time, stop_condition=stop_condition)
[docs] def compile_animation_data( self, *animations: Animation | Iterable[Animation] | types.GeneratorType[Animation], **play_kwargs, ): """Given a list of animations, compile the corresponding static and moving mobjects, and gather the animation durations. This also begins the animations. Parameters ---------- animations Animation or mobject with mobject method and params play_kwargs Named parameters affecting what was passed in ``animations``, e.g. ``run_time``, ``lag_ratio`` and so on. Returns ------- self, None None if there is nothing to play, or self otherwise. """ # NOTE TODO : returns statement of this method are wrong. It should return nothing, as it makes a little sense to get any information from this method. # The return are kept to keep webgl renderer from breaking. if len(animations) == 0: raise ValueError("Called Scene.play with no animations") self.animations = self.compile_animations(*animations, **play_kwargs) self.add_mobjects_from_animations(self.animations) self.last_t = 0 self.stop_condition = None self.moving_mobjects = [] self.static_mobjects = [] if len(self.animations) == 1 and isinstance(self.animations[0], Wait): if self.should_update_mobjects(): self.update_mobjects(dt=0) # Any problems with this? self.stop_condition = self.animations[0].stop_condition else: self.duration = self.animations[0].duration # Static image logic when the wait is static is done by the renderer, not here. self.animations[0].is_static_wait = True return None self.duration = self.get_run_time(self.animations) return self
[docs] def begin_animations(self) -> None: """Start the animations of the scene.""" for animation in self.animations: animation._setup_scene(self) animation.begin() if config.renderer == RendererType.CAIRO: # Paint all non-moving objects onto the screen, so they don't # have to be rendered every frame ( self.moving_mobjects, self.static_mobjects, ) = self.get_moving_and_static_mobjects(self.animations)
[docs] def is_current_animation_frozen_frame(self) -> bool: """Returns whether the current animation produces a static frame (generally a Wait).""" return ( isinstance(self.animations[0], Wait) and len(self.animations) == 1 and self.animations[0].is_static_wait )
[docs] def play_internal(self, skip_rendering: bool = False): """ This method is used to prep the animations for rendering, apply the arguments and parameters required to them, render them, and write them to the video file. Parameters ---------- skip_rendering Whether the rendering should be skipped, by default False """ self.duration = self.get_run_time(self.animations) self.time_progression = self._get_animation_time_progression( self.animations, self.duration, ) for t in self.time_progression: self.update_to_time(t) if not skip_rendering and not self.skip_animation_preview: self.renderer.render(self, t, self.moving_mobjects) if self.stop_condition is not None and self.stop_condition(): self.time_progression.close() break for animation in self.animations: animation.finish() animation.clean_up_from_scene(self) if not self.renderer.skip_animations: self.update_mobjects(0) self.renderer.static_image = None # Closing the progress bar at the end of the play. self.time_progression.close()
def check_interactive_embed_is_valid(self): if config["force_window"]: return True if self.skip_animation_preview: logger.warning( "Disabling interactive embed as 'skip_animation_preview' is enabled", ) return False elif config["write_to_movie"]: logger.warning("Disabling interactive embed as 'write_to_movie' is enabled") return False elif config["format"]: logger.warning( "Disabling interactive embed as '--format' is set as " + config["format"], ) return False elif not self.renderer.window: logger.warning("Disabling interactive embed as no window was created") return False elif config.dry_run: logger.warning("Disabling interactive embed as dry_run is enabled") return False return True
[docs] def interactive_embed(self): """ Like embed(), but allows for screen interaction. """ if not self.check_interactive_embed_is_valid(): return self.interactive_mode = True def ipython(shell, namespace): import manim.opengl def load_module_into_namespace(module, namespace): for name in dir(module): namespace[name] = getattr(module, name) load_module_into_namespace(manim, namespace) load_module_into_namespace(manim.opengl, namespace) def embedded_rerun(*args, **kwargs): self.queue.put(("rerun_keyboard", args, kwargs)) shell.exiter() namespace["rerun"] = embedded_rerun shell(local_ns=namespace) self.queue.put(("exit_keyboard", [], {})) def get_embedded_method(method_name): return lambda *args, **kwargs: self.queue.put((method_name, args, kwargs)) local_namespace = inspect.currentframe().f_back.f_locals for method in ("play", "wait", "add", "remove"): embedded_method = get_embedded_method(method) # Allow for calling scene methods without prepending 'self.'. local_namespace[method] = embedded_method from sqlite3 import connect from IPython.core.getipython import get_ipython from IPython.terminal.embed import InteractiveShellEmbed from traitlets.config import Config cfg = Config() cfg.TerminalInteractiveShell.confirm_exit = False if get_ipython() is None: shell = InteractiveShellEmbed.instance(config=cfg) else: shell = InteractiveShellEmbed(config=cfg) hist = get_ipython().history_manager hist.db = connect(hist.hist_file, check_same_thread=False) keyboard_thread = threading.Thread( target=ipython, args=(shell, local_namespace), ) # run as daemon to kill thread when main thread exits if not shell.pt_app: keyboard_thread.daemon = True keyboard_thread.start() if self.dearpygui_imported and config["enable_gui"]: if not dpg.is_dearpygui_running(): gui_thread = threading.Thread( target=configure_pygui, args=(self.renderer, self.widgets), kwargs={"update": False}, ) gui_thread.start() else: configure_pygui(self.renderer, self.widgets, update=True) self.camera.model_matrix = self.camera.default_model_matrix self.interact(shell, keyboard_thread)
def interact(self, shell, keyboard_thread): event_handler = RerunSceneHandler(self.queue) file_observer = Observer() file_observer.schedule(event_handler, config["input_file"], recursive=True) file_observer.start() self.quit_interaction = False keyboard_thread_needs_join = shell.pt_app is not None assert self.queue.qsize() == 0 last_time = time.time() while not (self.renderer.window.is_closing or self.quit_interaction): if not self.queue.empty(): tup = self.queue.get_nowait() if tup[0].startswith("rerun"): # Intentionally skip calling join() on the file thread to save time. if not tup[0].endswith("keyboard"): if shell.pt_app: shell.pt_app.app.exit(exception=EOFError) file_observer.unschedule_all() raise RerunSceneException keyboard_thread.join() kwargs = tup[2] if "from_animation_number" in kwargs: config["from_animation_number"] = kwargs[ "from_animation_number" ] # # TODO: This option only makes sense if interactive_embed() is run at the # # end of a scene by default. # if "upto_animation_number" in kwargs: # config["upto_animation_number"] = kwargs[ # "upto_animation_number" # ] keyboard_thread.join() file_observer.unschedule_all() raise RerunSceneException elif tup[0].startswith("exit"): # Intentionally skip calling join() on the file thread to save time. if not tup[0].endswith("keyboard") and shell.pt_app: shell.pt_app.app.exit(exception=EOFError) keyboard_thread.join() # Remove exit_keyboard from the queue if necessary. while self.queue.qsize() > 0: self.queue.get() keyboard_thread_needs_join = False break else: method, args, kwargs = tup getattr(self, method)(*args, **kwargs) else: self.renderer.animation_start_time = 0 dt = time.time() - last_time last_time = time.time() self.renderer.render(self, dt, self.moving_mobjects) self.update_mobjects(dt) self.update_meshes(dt) self.update_self(dt) # Join the keyboard thread if necessary. if shell is not None and keyboard_thread_needs_join: shell.pt_app.app.exit(exception=EOFError) keyboard_thread.join() # Remove exit_keyboard from the queue if necessary. while self.queue.qsize() > 0: self.queue.get() file_observer.stop() file_observer.join() if self.dearpygui_imported and config["enable_gui"]: dpg.stop_dearpygui() if self.renderer.window.is_closing: self.renderer.window.destroy() def embed(self): if not config["preview"]: logger.warning("Called embed() while no preview window is available.") return if config["write_to_movie"]: logger.warning("embed() is skipped while writing to a file.") return self.renderer.animation_start_time = 0 self.renderer.render(self, -1, self.moving_mobjects) # Configure IPython shell. from IPython.terminal.embed import InteractiveShellEmbed shell = InteractiveShellEmbed() # Have the frame update after each command shell.events.register( "post_run_cell", lambda *a, **kw: self.renderer.render(self, -1, self.moving_mobjects), ) # Use the locals of the caller as the local namespace # once embedded, and add a few custom shortcuts. local_ns = inspect.currentframe().f_back.f_locals # local_ns["touch"] = self.interact for method in ( "play", "wait", "add", "remove", "interact", # "clear", # "save_state", # "restore", ): local_ns[method] = getattr(self, method) shell(local_ns=local_ns, stack_depth=2) # End scene when exiting an embed. raise Exception("Exiting scene.") def update_to_time(self, t): dt = t - self.last_t self.last_t = t for animation in self.animations: animation.update_mobjects(dt) alpha = t / animation.run_time animation.interpolate(alpha) self.update_mobjects(dt) self.update_meshes(dt) self.update_self(dt)
[docs] def add_subcaption( self, content: str, duration: float = 1, offset: float = 0 ) -> None: r"""Adds an entry in the corresponding subcaption file at the current time stamp. The current time stamp is obtained from ``Scene.renderer.time``. Parameters ---------- content The subcaption content. duration The duration (in seconds) for which the subcaption is shown. offset This offset (in seconds) is added to the starting time stamp of the subcaption. Examples -------- This example illustrates both possibilities for adding subcaptions to Manimations:: class SubcaptionExample(Scene): def construct(self): square = Square() circle = Circle() # first option: via the add_subcaption method self.add_subcaption("Hello square!", duration=1) self.play(Create(square)) # second option: within the call to Scene.play self.play( Transform(square, circle), subcaption="The square transforms." ) """ subtitle = srt.Subtitle( index=len(self.renderer.file_writer.subcaptions), content=content, start=datetime.timedelta(seconds=float(self.renderer.time + offset)), end=datetime.timedelta( seconds=float(self.renderer.time + offset + duration) ), ) self.renderer.file_writer.subcaptions.append(subtitle)
[docs] def add_sound( self, sound_file: str, time_offset: float = 0, gain: float | None = None, **kwargs, ): """ This method is used to add a sound to the animation. Parameters ---------- sound_file The path to the sound file. time_offset The offset in the sound file after which the sound can be played. gain Amplification of the sound. Examples -------- .. manim:: SoundExample :no_autoplay: class SoundExample(Scene): # Source of sound under Creative Commons 0 License. https://freesound.org/people/Druminfected/sounds/250551/ def construct(self): dot = Dot().set_color(GREEN) self.add_sound("click.wav") self.add(dot) self.wait() self.add_sound("click.wav") dot.set_color(BLUE) self.wait() self.add_sound("click.wav") dot.set_color(RED) self.wait() Download the resource for the previous example `here <https://github.com/ManimCommunity/manim/blob/main/docs/source/_static/click.wav>`_ . """ if self.renderer.skip_animations: return time = self.renderer.time + time_offset self.renderer.file_writer.add_sound(sound_file, time, gain, **kwargs)
def on_mouse_motion(self, point, d_point): self.mouse_point.move_to(point) if SHIFT_VALUE in self.renderer.pressed_keys: shift = -d_point shift[0] *= self.camera.get_width() / 2 shift[1] *= self.camera.get_height() / 2 transform = self.camera.inverse_rotation_matrix shift = np.dot(np.transpose(transform), shift) self.camera.shift(shift) def on_mouse_scroll(self, point, offset): if not config.use_projection_stroke_shaders: factor = 1 + np.arctan(-2.1 * offset[1]) self.camera.scale(factor, about_point=self.camera_target) self.mouse_scroll_orbit_controls(point, offset) def on_key_press(self, symbol, modifiers): try: char = chr(symbol) except OverflowError: logger.warning("The value of the pressed key is too large.") return if char == "r": self.camera.to_default_state() self.camera_target = np.array([0, 0, 0], dtype=np.float32) elif char == "q": self.quit_interaction = True else: if char in self.key_to_function_map: self.key_to_function_map[char]() def on_key_release(self, symbol, modifiers): pass def on_mouse_drag(self, point, d_point, buttons, modifiers): self.mouse_drag_point.move_to(point) if buttons == 1: self.camera.increment_theta(-d_point[0]) self.camera.increment_phi(d_point[1]) elif buttons == 4: camera_x_axis = self.camera.model_matrix[:3, 0] horizontal_shift_vector = -d_point[0] * camera_x_axis vertical_shift_vector = -d_point[1] * np.cross(OUT, camera_x_axis) total_shift_vector = horizontal_shift_vector + vertical_shift_vector self.camera.shift(1.1 * total_shift_vector) self.mouse_drag_orbit_controls(point, d_point, buttons, modifiers) def mouse_scroll_orbit_controls(self, point, offset): camera_to_target = self.camera_target - self.camera.get_position() camera_to_target *= np.sign(offset[1]) shift_vector = 0.01 * camera_to_target self.camera.model_matrix = ( opengl.translation_matrix(*shift_vector) @ self.camera.model_matrix ) def mouse_drag_orbit_controls(self, point, d_point, buttons, modifiers): # Left click drag. if buttons == 1: # Translate to target the origin and rotate around the z axis. self.camera.model_matrix = ( opengl.rotation_matrix(z=-d_point[0]) @ opengl.translation_matrix(*-self.camera_target) @ self.camera.model_matrix ) # Rotation off of the z axis. camera_position = self.camera.get_position() camera_y_axis = self.camera.model_matrix[:3, 1] axis_of_rotation = space_ops.normalize( np.cross(camera_y_axis, camera_position), ) rotation_matrix = space_ops.rotation_matrix( d_point[1], axis_of_rotation, homogeneous=True, ) maximum_polar_angle = self.camera.maximum_polar_angle minimum_polar_angle = self.camera.minimum_polar_angle potential_camera_model_matrix = rotation_matrix @ self.camera.model_matrix potential_camera_location = potential_camera_model_matrix[:3, 3] potential_camera_y_axis = potential_camera_model_matrix[:3, 1] sign = ( np.sign(potential_camera_y_axis[2]) if potential_camera_y_axis[2] != 0 else 1 ) potential_polar_angle = sign * np.arccos( potential_camera_location[2] / np.linalg.norm(potential_camera_location), ) if minimum_polar_angle <= potential_polar_angle <= maximum_polar_angle: self.camera.model_matrix = potential_camera_model_matrix else: sign = np.sign(camera_y_axis[2]) if camera_y_axis[2] != 0 else 1 current_polar_angle = sign * np.arccos( camera_position[2] / np.linalg.norm(camera_position), ) if potential_polar_angle > maximum_polar_angle: polar_angle_delta = maximum_polar_angle - current_polar_angle else: polar_angle_delta = minimum_polar_angle - current_polar_angle rotation_matrix = space_ops.rotation_matrix( polar_angle_delta, axis_of_rotation, homogeneous=True, ) self.camera.model_matrix = rotation_matrix @ self.camera.model_matrix # Translate to target the original target. self.camera.model_matrix = ( opengl.translation_matrix(*self.camera_target) @ self.camera.model_matrix ) # Right click drag. elif buttons == 4: camera_x_axis = self.camera.model_matrix[:3, 0] horizontal_shift_vector = -d_point[0] * camera_x_axis vertical_shift_vector = -d_point[1] * np.cross(OUT, camera_x_axis) total_shift_vector = horizontal_shift_vector + vertical_shift_vector self.camera.model_matrix = ( opengl.translation_matrix(*total_shift_vector) @ self.camera.model_matrix ) self.camera_target += total_shift_vector def set_key_function(self, char, func): self.key_to_function_map[char] = func def on_mouse_press(self, point, button, modifiers): for func in self.mouse_press_callbacks: func()