Source code for manim.animation.transform

"""Animations transforming one mobject into another."""

from __future__ import annotations

__all__ = [

import inspect
import types
from typing import TYPE_CHECKING, Any, Callable, Iterable, Sequence

import numpy as np

from manim.mobject.opengl.opengl_mobject import OpenGLGroup, OpenGLMobject

from .. import config
from ..animation.animation import Animation
from ..constants import (
from ..mobject.mobject import Group, Mobject
from ..utils.paths import path_along_arc, path_along_circles
from ..utils.rate_functions import smooth, squish_rate_func

    from ..scene.scene import Scene

[docs] class Transform(Animation): """A Transform transforms a Mobject into a target Mobject. Parameters ---------- mobject The :class:`.Mobject` to be transformed. It will be mutated to become the ``target_mobject``. target_mobject The target of the transformation. path_func A function defining the path that the points of the ``mobject`` are being moved along until they match the points of the ``target_mobject``, see :mod:`.utils.paths`. path_arc The arc angle (in radians) that the points of ``mobject`` will follow to reach the points of the target if using a circular path arc, see ``path_arc_centers``. See also :func:`manim.utils.paths.path_along_arc`. path_arc_axis The axis to rotate along if using a circular path arc, see ``path_arc_centers``. path_arc_centers The center of the circular arcs along which the points of ``mobject`` are moved by the transformation. If this is set and ``path_func`` is not set, then a ``path_along_circles`` path will be generated using the ``path_arc`` parameters and stored in ``path_func``. If ``path_func`` is set, this and the other ``path_arc`` fields are set as attributes, but a ``path_func`` is not generated from it. replace_mobject_with_target_in_scene Controls which mobject is replaced when the transformation is complete. If set to True, ``mobject`` will be removed from the scene and ``target_mobject`` will replace it. Otherwise, ``target_mobject`` is never added and ``mobject`` just takes its shape. Examples -------- .. manim :: TransformPathArc class TransformPathArc(Scene): def construct(self): def make_arc_path(start, end, arc_angle): points = [] p_fn = path_along_arc(arc_angle) # alpha animates between 0.0 and 1.0, where 0.0 # is the beginning of the animation and 1.0 is the end. for alpha in range(0, 11): points.append(p_fn(start, end, alpha / 10.0)) path = VMobject(stroke_color=YELLOW) path.set_points_smoothly(points) return path left = Circle(stroke_color=BLUE_E, fill_opacity=1.0, radius=0.5).move_to(LEFT * 2) colors = [TEAL_A, TEAL_B, TEAL_C, TEAL_D, TEAL_E, GREEN_A] # Positive angles move counter-clockwise, negative angles move clockwise. examples = [-90, 0, 30, 90, 180, 270] anims = [] for idx, angle in enumerate(examples): left_c = left.copy().shift((3 - idx) * UP) left_c.fill_color = colors[idx] right_c = left_c.copy().shift(4 * RIGHT) path_arc = make_arc_path(left_c.get_center(), right_c.get_center(), arc_angle=angle * DEGREES) desc = Text('%d°' % examples[idx]).next_to(left_c, LEFT) # Make the circles in front of the text in front of the arcs. self.add( path_arc.set_z_index(1), desc.set_z_index(2), left_c.set_z_index(3), ) anims.append(Transform(left_c, right_c, path_arc=angle * DEGREES))*anims, run_time=2) self.wait() """ def __init__( self, mobject: Mobject | None, target_mobject: Mobject | None = None, path_func: Callable | None = None, path_arc: float = 0, path_arc_axis: np.ndarray = OUT, path_arc_centers: np.ndarray = None, replace_mobject_with_target_in_scene: bool = False, **kwargs, ) -> None: self.path_arc_axis: np.ndarray = path_arc_axis self.path_arc_centers: np.ndarray = path_arc_centers self.path_arc: float = path_arc # path_func is a property a few lines below so it doesn't need to be set in any case if path_func is not None: self.path_func: Callable = path_func elif self.path_arc_centers is not None: self.path_func = path_along_circles( path_arc, self.path_arc_centers, self.path_arc_axis, ) self.replace_mobject_with_target_in_scene: bool = ( replace_mobject_with_target_in_scene ) self.target_mobject: Mobject = ( target_mobject if target_mobject is not None else Mobject() ) super().__init__(mobject, **kwargs) @property def path_arc(self) -> float: return self._path_arc @path_arc.setter def path_arc(self, path_arc: float) -> None: self._path_arc = path_arc self._path_func = path_along_arc( arc_angle=self._path_arc, axis=self.path_arc_axis, ) @property def path_func( self, ) -> Callable[ [Iterable[np.ndarray], Iterable[np.ndarray], float], Iterable[np.ndarray], ]: return self._path_func @path_func.setter def path_func( self, path_func: Callable[ [Iterable[np.ndarray], Iterable[np.ndarray], float], Iterable[np.ndarray], ], ) -> None: if path_func is not None: self._path_func = path_func
[docs] def begin(self) -> None: # Use a copy of target_mobject for the align_data # call so that the actual target_mobject stays # preserved. self.target_mobject = self.create_target() self.target_copy = self.target_mobject.copy() # Note, this potentially changes the structure # of both mobject and target_mobject if config.renderer == RendererType.OPENGL: self.mobject.align_data_and_family(self.target_copy) else: self.mobject.align_data(self.target_copy) super().begin()
def create_target(self) -> Mobject: # Has no meaningful effect here, but may be useful # in subclasses return self.target_mobject
[docs] def clean_up_from_scene(self, scene: Scene) -> None: super().clean_up_from_scene(scene) if self.replace_mobject_with_target_in_scene: scene.replace(self.mobject, self.target_mobject)
[docs] def get_all_mobjects(self) -> Sequence[Mobject]: return [ self.mobject, self.starting_mobject, self.target_mobject, self.target_copy, ]
def get_all_families_zipped(self) -> Iterable[tuple]: # more precise typing? mobs = [ self.mobject, self.starting_mobject, self.target_copy, ] if config.renderer == RendererType.OPENGL: return zip(*(mob.get_family() for mob in mobs)) return zip(*(mob.family_members_with_points() for mob in mobs)) def interpolate_submobject( self, submobject: Mobject, starting_submobject: Mobject, target_copy: Mobject, alpha: float, ) -> Transform: submobject.interpolate(starting_submobject, target_copy, alpha, self.path_func) return self
[docs] class ReplacementTransform(Transform): """Replaces and morphs a mobject into a target mobject. Parameters ---------- mobject The starting :class:`~.Mobject`. target_mobject The target :class:`~.Mobject`. kwargs Further keyword arguments that are passed to :class:`Transform`. Examples -------- .. manim:: ReplacementTransformOrTransform :quality: low class ReplacementTransformOrTransform(Scene): def construct(self): # set up the numbers r_transform = VGroup(*[Integer(i) for i in range(1,4)]) text_1 = Text("ReplacementTransform", color=RED) r_transform.add(text_1) transform = VGroup(*[Integer(i) for i in range(4,7)]) text_2 = Text("Transform", color=BLUE) transform.add(text_2) ints = VGroup(r_transform, transform) texts = VGroup(text_1, text_2).scale(0.75) r_transform.arrange(direction=UP, buff=1) transform.arrange(direction=UP, buff=1) ints.arrange(buff=2) self.add(ints, texts) # The mobs replace each other and none are left behind[0], r_transform[1]))[1], r_transform[2])) # The mobs linger after the Transform()[0], transform[1]))[1], transform[2])) self.wait() """ def __init__(self, mobject: Mobject, target_mobject: Mobject, **kwargs) -> None: super().__init__( mobject, target_mobject, replace_mobject_with_target_in_scene=True, **kwargs )
[docs] class TransformFromCopy(Transform): """ Performs a reversed Transform """ def __init__(self, mobject: Mobject, target_mobject: Mobject, **kwargs) -> None: super().__init__(target_mobject, mobject, **kwargs)
[docs] def interpolate(self, alpha: float) -> None: super().interpolate(1 - alpha)
[docs] class ClockwiseTransform(Transform): """Transforms the points of a mobject along a clockwise oriented arc. See also -------- :class:`.Transform`, :class:`.CounterclockwiseTransform` Examples -------- .. manim:: ClockwiseExample class ClockwiseExample(Scene): def construct(self): dl, dr = Dot(), Dot() sl, sr = Square(), Square() VGroup(dl, sl).arrange(DOWN).shift(2*LEFT) VGroup(dr, sr).arrange(DOWN).shift(2*RIGHT) self.add(dl, dr) self.wait() ClockwiseTransform(dl, sl), Transform(dr, sr) ) self.wait() """ def __init__( self, mobject: Mobject, target_mobject: Mobject, path_arc: float = -np.pi, **kwargs, ) -> None: super().__init__(mobject, target_mobject, path_arc=path_arc, **kwargs)
[docs] class CounterclockwiseTransform(Transform): """Transforms the points of a mobject along a counterclockwise oriented arc. See also -------- :class:`.Transform`, :class:`.ClockwiseTransform` Examples -------- .. manim:: CounterclockwiseTransform_vs_Transform class CounterclockwiseTransform_vs_Transform(Scene): def construct(self): # set up the numbers c_transform = VGroup(DecimalNumber(number=3.141, num_decimal_places=3), DecimalNumber(number=1.618, num_decimal_places=3)) text_1 = Text("CounterclockwiseTransform", color=RED) c_transform.add(text_1) transform = VGroup(DecimalNumber(number=1.618, num_decimal_places=3), DecimalNumber(number=3.141, num_decimal_places=3)) text_2 = Text("Transform", color=BLUE) transform.add(text_2) ints = VGroup(c_transform, transform) texts = VGroup(text_1, text_2).scale(0.75) c_transform.arrange(direction=UP, buff=1) transform.arrange(direction=UP, buff=1) ints.arrange(buff=2) self.add(ints, texts) # The mobs move in clockwise direction for ClockwiseTransform()[0], c_transform[1])) # The mobs move straight up for Transform()[0], transform[1])) """ def __init__( self, mobject: Mobject, target_mobject: Mobject, path_arc: float = np.pi, **kwargs, ) -> None: super().__init__(mobject, target_mobject, path_arc=path_arc, **kwargs)
[docs] class MoveToTarget(Transform): """Transforms a mobject to the mobject stored in its ``target`` attribute. After calling the :meth:`~.Mobject.generate_target` method, the :attr:`target` attribute of the mobject is populated with a copy of it. After modifying the attribute, playing the :class:`.MoveToTarget` animation transforms the original mobject into the modified one stored in the :attr:`target` attribute. Examples -------- .. manim:: MoveToTargetExample class MoveToTargetExample(Scene): def construct(self): c = Circle() c.generate_target(), opacity=0.5)*RIGHT + UP).scale(0.5) self.add(c) """ def __init__(self, mobject: Mobject, **kwargs) -> None: self.check_validity_of_input(mobject) super().__init__(mobject,, **kwargs) def check_validity_of_input(self, mobject: Mobject) -> None: if not hasattr(mobject, "target"): raise ValueError( "MoveToTarget called on mobject" "without attribute 'target'", )
class _MethodAnimation(MoveToTarget): def __init__(self, mobject, methods): self.methods = methods super().__init__(mobject) def finish(self) -> None: for method, method_args, method_kwargs in self.methods: method.__func__(self.mobject, *method_args, **method_kwargs) super().finish()
[docs] class ApplyMethod(Transform): """Animates a mobject by applying a method. Note that only the method needs to be passed to this animation, it is not required to pass the corresponding mobject. Furthermore, this animation class only works if the method returns the modified mobject. Parameters ---------- method The method that will be applied in the animation. args Any positional arguments to be passed when applying the method. kwargs Any keyword arguments passed to :class:`~.Transform`. """ def __init__( self, method: Callable, *args, **kwargs ) -> None: # method typing (we want to specify Mobject method)? for args? self.check_validity_of_input(method) self.method = method self.method_args = args super().__init__(method.__self__, **kwargs) def check_validity_of_input(self, method: Callable) -> None: if not inspect.ismethod(method): raise ValueError( "Whoops, looks like you accidentally invoked " "the method you want to animate", ) assert isinstance(method.__self__, (Mobject, OpenGLMobject)) def create_target(self) -> Mobject: method = self.method # Make sure it's a list so that args.pop() works args = list(self.method_args) if len(args) > 0 and isinstance(args[-1], dict): method_kwargs = args.pop() else: method_kwargs = {} target = method.__self__.copy() method.__func__(target, *args, **method_kwargs) return target
[docs] class ApplyPointwiseFunction(ApplyMethod): """Animation that applies a pointwise function to a mobject. Examples -------- .. manim:: WarpSquare :quality: low class WarpSquare(Scene): def construct(self): square = Square() ApplyPointwiseFunction( lambda point: complex_to_R3(np.exp(R3_to_complex(point))), square ) ) self.wait() """ def __init__( self, function: types.MethodType, mobject: Mobject, run_time: float = DEFAULT_POINTWISE_FUNCTION_RUN_TIME, **kwargs, ) -> None: super().__init__(mobject.apply_function, function, run_time=run_time, **kwargs)
[docs] class ApplyPointwiseFunctionToCenter(ApplyPointwiseFunction): def __init__(self, function: types.MethodType, mobject: Mobject, **kwargs) -> None: self.function = function super().__init__(mobject.move_to, **kwargs)
[docs] def begin(self) -> None: self.method_args = [self.function(self.mobject.get_center())] super().begin()
[docs] class FadeToColor(ApplyMethod): """Animation that changes color of a mobject. Examples -------- .. manim:: FadeToColorExample class FadeToColorExample(Scene): def construct(self):"Hello World!"), color=RED)) """ def __init__(self, mobject: Mobject, color: str, **kwargs) -> None: super().__init__(mobject.set_color, color, **kwargs)
[docs] class ScaleInPlace(ApplyMethod): """Animation that scales a mobject by a certain factor. Examples -------- .. manim:: ScaleInPlaceExample class ScaleInPlaceExample(Scene): def construct(self):"Hello World!"), 2)) """ def __init__(self, mobject: Mobject, scale_factor: float, **kwargs) -> None: super().__init__(mobject.scale, scale_factor, **kwargs)
[docs] class ShrinkToCenter(ScaleInPlace): """Animation that makes a mobject shrink to center. Examples -------- .. manim:: ShrinkToCenterExample class ShrinkToCenterExample(Scene): def construct(self):"Hello World!"))) """ def __init__(self, mobject: Mobject, **kwargs) -> None: super().__init__(mobject, 0, **kwargs)
[docs] class Restore(ApplyMethod): """Transforms a mobject to its last saved state. To save the state of a mobject, use the :meth:`~.Mobject.save_state` method. Examples -------- .. manim:: RestoreExample class RestoreExample(Scene): def construct(self): s = Square() s.save_state()*LEFT).scale(3))*DOWN).rotate(PI/4)) self.wait(), run_time=2) """ def __init__(self, mobject: Mobject, **kwargs) -> None: super().__init__(mobject.restore, **kwargs)
[docs] class ApplyFunction(Transform): def __init__(self, function: types.MethodType, mobject: Mobject, **kwargs) -> None: self.function = function super().__init__(mobject, **kwargs) def create_target(self) -> Any: target = self.function(self.mobject.copy()) if not isinstance(target, (Mobject, OpenGLMobject)): raise TypeError( "Functions passed to ApplyFunction must return object of type Mobject", ) return target
[docs] class ApplyMatrix(ApplyPointwiseFunction): """Applies a matrix transform to an mobject. Parameters ---------- matrix The transformation matrix. mobject The :class:`~.Mobject`. about_point The origin point for the transform. Defaults to ``ORIGIN``. kwargs Further keyword arguments that are passed to :class:`ApplyPointwiseFunction`. Examples -------- .. manim:: ApplyMatrixExample class ApplyMatrixExample(Scene): def construct(self): matrix = [[1, 1], [0, 2/3]], Text("Hello World!")), ApplyMatrix(matrix, NumberPlane())) """ def __init__( self, matrix: np.ndarray, mobject: Mobject, about_point: np.ndarray = ORIGIN, **kwargs, ) -> None: matrix = self.initialize_matrix(matrix) def func(p): return - about_point, matrix.T) + about_point super().__init__(func, mobject, **kwargs) def initialize_matrix(self, matrix: np.ndarray) -> np.ndarray: matrix = np.array(matrix) if matrix.shape == (2, 2): new_matrix = np.identity(3) new_matrix[:2, :2] = matrix matrix = new_matrix elif matrix.shape != (3, 3): raise ValueError("Matrix has bad dimensions") return matrix
[docs] class ApplyComplexFunction(ApplyMethod): def __init__(self, function: types.MethodType, mobject: Mobject, **kwargs) -> None: self.function = function method = mobject.apply_complex_function super().__init__(method, function, **kwargs) def _init_path_func(self) -> None: func1 = self.function(complex(1)) self.path_arc = np.log(func1).imag super()._init_path_func()
[docs] class CyclicReplace(Transform): """An animation moving mobjects cyclically. In particular, this means: the first mobject takes the place of the second mobject, the second one takes the place of the third mobject, and so on. The last mobject takes the place of the first one. Parameters ---------- mobjects List of mobjects to be transformed. path_arc The angle of the arc (in radians) that the mobjects will follow to reach their target. kwargs Further keyword arguments that are passed to :class:`.Transform`. Examples -------- .. manim :: CyclicReplaceExample class CyclicReplaceExample(Scene): def construct(self): group = VGroup(Square(), Circle(), Triangle(), Star()) group.arrange(RIGHT) self.add(group) for _ in range(4):*group)) """ def __init__( self, *mobjects: Mobject, path_arc: float = 90 * DEGREES, **kwargs ) -> None: = Group(*mobjects) super().__init__(, path_arc=path_arc, **kwargs) def create_target(self) -> Group: target = cycled_targets = [target[-1], *target[:-1]] for m1, m2 in zip(cycled_targets, m1.move_to(m2) return target
[docs] class Swap(CyclicReplace): pass # Renaming, more understandable for two entries
# TODO, this may be deprecated...worth reimplementing?
[docs] class TransformAnimations(Transform): def __init__( self, start_anim: Animation, end_anim: Animation, rate_func: Callable = squish_rate_func(smooth), **kwargs, ) -> None: self.start_anim = start_anim self.end_anim = end_anim if "run_time" in kwargs: self.run_time = kwargs.pop("run_time") else: self.run_time = max(start_anim.run_time, end_anim.run_time) for anim in start_anim, end_anim: anim.set_run_time(self.run_time) if ( start_anim.starting_mobject is not None and end_anim.starting_mobject is not None and start_anim.starting_mobject.get_num_points() != end_anim.starting_mobject.get_num_points() ): start_anim.starting_mobject.align_data(end_anim.starting_mobject) for anim in start_anim, end_anim: if isinstance(anim, Transform) and anim.starting_mobject is not None: anim.starting_mobject.align_data(anim.target_mobject) super().__init__( start_anim.mobject, end_anim.mobject, rate_func=rate_func, **kwargs ) # Rewire starting and ending mobjects start_anim.mobject = self.starting_mobject end_anim.mobject = self.target_mobject
[docs] def interpolate(self, alpha: float) -> None: self.start_anim.interpolate(alpha) self.end_anim.interpolate(alpha) super().interpolate(alpha)
[docs] class FadeTransform(Transform): """Fades one mobject into another. Parameters ---------- mobject The starting :class:`~.Mobject`. target_mobject The target :class:`~.Mobject`. stretch Controls whether the target :class:`~.Mobject` is stretched during the animation. Default: ``True``. dim_to_match If the target mobject is not stretched automatically, this allows to adjust the initial scale of the target :class:`~.Mobject` while it is shifted in. Setting this to 0, 1, and 2, respectively, matches the length of the target with the length of the starting :class:`~.Mobject` in x, y, and z direction, respectively. kwargs Further keyword arguments are passed to the parent class. Examples -------- .. manim:: DifferentFadeTransforms class DifferentFadeTransforms(Scene): def construct(self): starts = [Rectangle(width=4, height=1) for _ in range(3)] VGroup(*starts).arrange(DOWN, buff=1).shift(3*LEFT) targets = [Circle(fill_opacity=1).scale(0.25) for _ in range(3)] VGroup(*targets).arrange(DOWN, buff=1).shift(3*RIGHT)*[FadeIn(s) for s in starts]) FadeTransform(starts[0], targets[0], stretch=True), FadeTransform(starts[1], targets[1], stretch=False, dim_to_match=0), FadeTransform(starts[2], targets[2], stretch=False, dim_to_match=1) )*[FadeOut(mobj) for mobj in self.mobjects]) """ def __init__(self, mobject, target_mobject, stretch=True, dim_to_match=1, **kwargs): self.to_add_on_completion = target_mobject self.stretch = stretch self.dim_to_match = dim_to_match mobject.save_state() if config.renderer == RendererType.OPENGL: group = OpenGLGroup(mobject, target_mobject.copy()) else: group = Group(mobject, target_mobject.copy()) super().__init__(group, **kwargs)
[docs] def begin(self): """Initial setup for the animation. The mobject to which this animation is bound is a group consisting of both the starting and the ending mobject. At the start, the ending mobject replaces the starting mobject (and is completely faded). In the end, it is set to be the other way around. """ self.ending_mobject = self.mobject.copy() Animation.begin(self) # Both 'start' and 'end' consists of the source and target mobjects. # At the start, the target should be faded replacing the source, # and at the end it should be the other way around. start, end = self.starting_mobject, self.ending_mobject for m0, m1 in ((start[1], start[0]), (end[0], end[1])): self.ghost_to(m0, m1)
[docs] def ghost_to(self, source, target): """Replaces the source by the target and sets the opacity to 0. If the provided target has no points, and thus a location of [0, 0, 0] the source will simply fade out where it currently is. """ # mobject.replace() does not work if the target has no points. if target.get_num_points() or target.submobjects: source.replace(target, stretch=self.stretch, dim_to_match=self.dim_to_match) source.set_opacity(0)
[docs] def get_all_mobjects(self) -> Sequence[Mobject]: return [ self.mobject, self.starting_mobject, self.ending_mobject, ]
def get_all_families_zipped(self): return Animation.get_all_families_zipped(self)
[docs] def clean_up_from_scene(self, scene): Animation.clean_up_from_scene(self, scene) scene.remove(self.mobject) self.mobject[0].restore() scene.add(self.to_add_on_completion)
[docs] class FadeTransformPieces(FadeTransform): """Fades submobjects of one mobject into submobjects of another one. See also -------- :class:`~.FadeTransform` Examples -------- .. manim:: FadeTransformSubmobjects class FadeTransformSubmobjects(Scene): def construct(self): src = VGroup(Square(), Circle().shift(LEFT + UP)) src.shift(3*LEFT + 2*UP) src_copy = src.copy().shift(4*DOWN) target = VGroup(Circle(), Triangle().shift(RIGHT + DOWN)) target.shift(3*RIGHT + 2*UP) target_copy = target.copy().shift(4*DOWN), FadeIn(src_copy)) FadeTransform(src, target), FadeTransformPieces(src_copy, target_copy) )*[FadeOut(mobj) for mobj in self.mobjects]) """
[docs] def begin(self): self.mobject[0].align_submobjects(self.mobject[1]) super().begin()
[docs] def ghost_to(self, source, target): """Replaces the source submobjects by the target submobjects and sets the opacity to 0. """ for sm0, sm1 in zip(source.get_family(), target.get_family()): super().ghost_to(sm0, sm1)