Source code for manim.mobject.mobject

"""Base classes for objects that can be displayed."""
from __future__ import annotations

__all__ = ["Mobject", "Group", "override_animate"]

import copy
import itertools as it
import operator as op
import random
import sys
import types
import warnings
from functools import partialmethod, reduce
from math import ceil
from pathlib import Path
from typing import (

import numpy as np
from colour import Color

from manim.mobject.opengl.opengl_compatibility import ConvertToOpenGL

from .. import config, logger
from ..constants import *
from ..utils.color import (
from ..utils.exceptions import MultiAnimationOverrideException
from ..utils.iterables import list_update, remove_list_redundancies
from ..utils.paths import straight_path
from ..utils.simple_functions import get_parameters
from ..utils.space_ops import angle_between_vectors, normalize, rotation_matrix

# TODO: Explain array_attrs

Updater = Union[Callable[["Mobject"], None], Callable[["Mobject", float], None]]
T = TypeVar("T", bound="Mobject")

    from ..animation.animation import Animation

[docs]class Mobject: """Mathematical Object: base class for objects that can be displayed on screen. There is a compatibility layer that allows for getting and setting generic attributes with ``get_*`` and ``set_*`` methods. See :meth:`set` for more details. Attributes ---------- submobjects : List[:class:`Mobject`] The contained objects. points : :class:`numpy.ndarray` The points of the objects. .. seealso:: :class:`~.VMobject` """ animation_overrides = {} @classmethod def __init_subclass__(cls, **kwargs): super().__init_subclass__(**kwargs) cls.animation_overrides: dict[ type[Animation], Callable[[Mobject], Animation], ] = {} cls._add_intrinsic_animation_overrides() cls._original__init__ = cls.__init__ def __init__(self, color=WHITE, name=None, dim=3, target=None, z_index=0): = self.__class__.__name__ if name is None else name self.dim = dim = target self.z_index = z_index self.point_hash = None self.submobjects = [] self.updaters = [] self.updating_suspended = False self.color = Color(color) if color else None self.reset_points() self.generate_points() self.init_colors()
[docs] @classmethod def animation_override_for( cls, animation_class: type[Animation], ) -> Callable[[Mobject, ...], Animation] | None: """Returns the function defining a specific animation override for this class. Parameters ---------- animation_class The animation class for which the override function should be returned. Returns ------- Optional[Callable[[Mobject, ...], Animation]] The function returning the override animation or ``None`` if no such animation override is defined. """ if animation_class in cls.animation_overrides: return cls.animation_overrides[animation_class] return None
@classmethod def _add_intrinsic_animation_overrides(cls): """Initializes animation overrides marked with the :func:`~.override_animation` decorator. """ for method_name in dir(cls): # Ignore dunder methods if method_name.startswith("__"): continue method = getattr(cls, method_name) if hasattr(method, "_override_animation"): animation_class = method._override_animation cls.add_animation_override(animation_class, method)
[docs] @classmethod def add_animation_override( cls, animation_class: type[Animation], override_func: Callable[[Mobject, ...], Animation], ): """Add an animation override. This does not apply to subclasses. Parameters ---------- animation_class The animation type to be overridden override_func The function returning an animation replacing the default animation. It gets passed the parameters given to the animnation constructor. Raises ------ MultiAnimationOverrideException If the overridden animation was already overridden. """ if animation_class not in cls.animation_overrides: cls.animation_overrides[animation_class] = override_func else: raise MultiAnimationOverrideException( f"The animation {animation_class.__name__} for " f"{cls.__name__} is overridden by more than one method: " f"{cls.animation_overrides[animation_class].__qualname__} and " f"{override_func.__qualname__}.", )
[docs] @classmethod def set_default(cls, **kwargs): """Sets the default values of keyword arguments. If this method is called without any additional keyword arguments, the original default values of the initialization method of this class are restored. Parameters ---------- kwargs Passing any keyword argument will update the default values of the keyword arguments of the initialization function of this class. Examples -------- :: >>> from manim import Square, GREEN >>> Square.set_default(color=GREEN, fill_opacity=0.25) >>> s = Square(); s.color, s.fill_opacity (<Color #83c167>, 0.25) >>> Square.set_default() >>> s = Square(); s.color, s.fill_opacity (<Color white>, 0.0) .. manim:: ChangedDefaultTextcolor :save_last_frame: config.background_color = WHITE class ChangedDefaultTextcolor(Scene): def construct(self): Text.set_default(color=BLACK) self.add(Text("Changing default values is easy!")) # we revert the colour back to the default to prevent a bug in the docs. Text.set_default(color=WHITE) """ if kwargs: cls.__init__ = partialmethod(cls.__init__, **kwargs) else: cls.__init__ = cls._original__init__
@property def animate(self) -> _AnimationBuilder | T: """Used to animate the application of any method of :code:`self`. Any method called on :code:`animate` is converted to an animation of applying that method on the mobject itself. For example, :code:`square.set_fill(WHITE)` sets the fill color of a square, while :code:`square.animate.set_fill(WHITE)` animates this action. Multiple methods can be put in a single animation once via chaining: :: .. warning:: Passing multiple animations for the same :class:`Mobject` in one call to :meth:`` is discouraged and will most likely not work properly. Instead of writing an animation like ::, my_mobject.animate.rotate(PI)) make use of method chaining. Keyword arguments that can be passed to :meth:`` can be passed directly after accessing ``.animate``, like so:: This is especially useful when animating simultaneous ``.animate`` calls that you want to behave differently:: mobject1.animate(run_time=2).rotate(PI), mobject2.animate(rate_func=there_and_back).shift(RIGHT), ) .. seealso:: :func:`override_animate` Examples -------- .. manim:: AnimateExample class AnimateExample(Scene): def construct(self): s = Square() / 2)) .. manim:: AnimateChainExample class AnimateChainExample(Scene): def construct(self): s = Square() / 2)) .. manim:: AnimateWithArgsExample class AnimateWithArgsExample(Scene): def construct(self): s = Square() c = Circle() VGroup(s, c).arrange(RIGHT, buff=2) self.add(s, c) s.animate(run_time=2).rotate(PI / 2), c.animate(rate_func=there_and_back).shift(RIGHT), ) .. warning:: ``.animate`` will interpolate the :class:`~.Mobject` between its points prior to ``.animate`` and its points after applying ``.animate`` to it. This may result in unexpected behavior when attempting to interpolate along paths, or rotations. If you want animations to consider the points between, consider using :class:`~.ValueTracker` with updaters instead. """ return _AnimationBuilder(self) def __deepcopy__(self, clone_from_id): cls = self.__class__ result = cls.__new__(cls) clone_from_id[id(self)] = result for k, v in self.__dict__.items(): setattr(result, k, copy.deepcopy(v, clone_from_id)) result.original_id = str(id(self)) return result def __repr__(self): return str(
[docs] def reset_points(self): """Sets :attr:`points` to be an empty array.""" self.points = np.zeros((0, self.dim))
[docs] def init_colors(self): """Initializes the colors. Gets called upon creation. This is an empty method that can be implemented by subclasses. """ pass
[docs] def generate_points(self): """Initializes :attr:`points` and therefore the shape. Gets called upon creation. This is an empty method that can be implemented by subclasses. """ pass
[docs] def add(self, *mobjects: Mobject): """Add mobjects as submobjects. The mobjects are added to :attr:`submobjects`. Subclasses of mobject may implement ``+`` and ``+=`` dunder methods. Parameters ---------- mobjects The mobjects to add. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` Raises ------ :class:`ValueError` When a mobject tries to add itself. :class:`TypeError` When trying to add an object that is not an instance of :class:`Mobject`. Notes ----- A mobject cannot contain itself, and it cannot contain a submobject more than once. If the parent mobject is displayed, the newly-added submobjects will also be displayed (i.e. they are automatically added to the parent Scene). See Also -------- :meth:`remove` :meth:`add_to_back` Examples -------- :: >>> outer = Mobject() >>> inner = Mobject() >>> outer = outer.add(inner) Duplicates are not added again:: >>> outer = outer.add(inner) >>> len(outer.submobjects) 1 Adding an object to itself raises an error:: >>> outer.add(outer) Traceback (most recent call last): ... ValueError: Mobject cannot contain self A given mobject cannot be added as a submobject twice to some parent:: >>> parent = Mobject(name="parent") >>> child = Mobject(name="child") >>> parent.add(child, child) [...] WARNING ... parent >>> parent.submobjects [child] """ for m in mobjects: if not isinstance(m, Mobject): raise TypeError("All submobjects must be of type Mobject") if m is self: raise ValueError("Mobject cannot contain self") unique_mobjects = remove_list_redundancies(mobjects) if len(mobjects) != len(unique_mobjects): logger.warning( "Attempted adding some Mobject as a child more than once, " "this is not possible. Repetitions are ignored.", ) self.submobjects = list_update(self.submobjects, unique_mobjects) return self
[docs] def insert(self, index: int, mobject: Mobject): """Inserts a mobject at a specific position into self.submobjects Effectively just calls ``self.submobjects.insert(index, mobject)``, where ``self.submobjects`` is a list. Highly adapted from ``Mobject.add``. Parameters ---------- index The index at which mobject The mobject to be inserted. """ if not isinstance(mobject, Mobject): raise TypeError("All submobjects must be of type Mobject") if mobject is self: raise ValueError("Mobject cannot contain self") self.submobjects.insert(index, mobject)
def __add__(self, mobject): raise NotImplementedError def __iadd__(self, mobject): raise NotImplementedError
[docs] def add_to_back(self, *mobjects: Mobject): """Add all passed mobjects to the back of the submobjects. If :attr:`submobjects` already contains the given mobjects, they just get moved to the back instead. Parameters ---------- mobjects The mobjects to add. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` .. note:: Technically, this is done by adding (or moving) the mobjects to the head of :attr:`submobjects`. The head of this list is rendered first, which places the corresponding mobjects behind the subsequent list members. Raises ------ :class:`ValueError` When a mobject tries to add itself. :class:`TypeError` When trying to add an object that is not an instance of :class:`Mobject`. Notes ----- A mobject cannot contain itself, and it cannot contain a submobject more than once. If the parent mobject is displayed, the newly-added submobjects will also be displayed (i.e. they are automatically added to the parent Scene). See Also -------- :meth:`remove` :meth:`add` """ if self in mobjects: raise ValueError("A mobject shouldn't contain itself") for mobject in mobjects: if not isinstance(mobject, Mobject): raise TypeError("All submobjects must be of type Mobject") self.remove(*mobjects) # dict.fromkeys() removes duplicates while maintaining order self.submobjects = list(dict.fromkeys(mobjects)) + self.submobjects return self
[docs] def remove(self, *mobjects: Mobject): """Remove :attr:`submobjects`. The mobjects are removed from :attr:`submobjects`, if they exist. Subclasses of mobject may implement ``-`` and ``-=`` dunder methods. Parameters ---------- mobjects The mobjects to remove. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` See Also -------- :meth:`add` """ for mobject in mobjects: if mobject in self.submobjects: self.submobjects.remove(mobject) return self
def __sub__(self, other): raise NotImplementedError def __isub__(self, other): raise NotImplementedError
[docs] def set(self, **kwargs): """Sets attributes. I.e. ``my_mobject.set(foo=1)`` applies `` = 1``. This is a convenience to be used along with :attr:`animate` to animate setting attributes. In addition to this method, there is a compatibility layer that allows ``get_*`` and ``set_*`` methods to get and set generic attributes. For instance:: >>> mob = Mobject() >>> mob.set_foo(0) Mobject >>> mob.get_foo() 0 >>> 0 This compatibility layer does not interfere with any ``get_*`` or ``set_*`` methods that are explicitly defined. .. warning:: This compatibility layer is for backwards compatibility and is not guaranteed to stay around. Where applicable, please prefer getting/setting attributes normally or with the :meth:`set` method. Parameters ---------- **kwargs The attributes and corresponding values to set. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` Examples -------- :: >>> mob = Mobject() >>> mob.set(foo=0) Mobject >>> 0 """ for attr, value in kwargs.items(): setattr(self, attr, value) return self
def __getattr__(self, attr): # Add automatic compatibility layer # between properties and get_* and set_* # methods. # # In python 3.9+ we could change this # logic to use str.remove_prefix instead. if attr.startswith("get_"): # Remove the "get_" prefix to_get = attr[4:] def getter(self): warnings.warn( "This method is not guaranteed to stay around. Please prefer " "getting the attribute normally.", DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2, ) return getattr(self, to_get) # Return a bound method return types.MethodType(getter, self) if attr.startswith("set_"): # Remove the "set_" prefix to_set = attr[4:] def setter(self, value): warnings.warn( "This method is not guaranteed to stay around. Please prefer " "setting the attribute normally or with Mobject.set().", DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2, ) setattr(self, to_set, value) return self # Return a bound method return types.MethodType(setter, self) # Unhandled attribute, therefore error raise AttributeError(f"{type(self).__name__} object has no attribute '{attr}'") @property def width(self): """The width of the mobject. Returns ------- :class:`float` Examples -------- .. manim:: WidthExample class WidthExample(Scene): def construct(self): decimal = DecimalNumber().to_edge(UP) rect = Rectangle(color=BLUE) rect_copy = rect.copy().set_stroke(GRAY, opacity=0.5) decimal.add_updater(lambda d: d.set_value(rect.width)) self.add(rect_copy, rect, decimal) self.wait() See also -------- :meth:`length_over_dim` """ # Get the length across the X dimension return self.length_over_dim(0) @width.setter def width(self, value): self.scale_to_fit_width(value) @property def height(self): """The height of the mobject. Returns ------- :class:`float` Examples -------- .. manim:: HeightExample class HeightExample(Scene): def construct(self): decimal = DecimalNumber().to_edge(UP) rect = Rectangle(color=BLUE) rect_copy = rect.copy().set_stroke(GRAY, opacity=0.5) decimal.add_updater(lambda d: d.set_value(rect.height)) self.add(rect_copy, rect, decimal) self.wait() See also -------- :meth:`length_over_dim` """ # Get the length across the Y dimension return self.length_over_dim(1) @height.setter def height(self, value): self.scale_to_fit_height(value) @property def depth(self): """The depth of the mobject. Returns ------- :class:`float` See also -------- :meth:`length_over_dim` """ # Get the length across the Z dimension return self.length_over_dim(2) @depth.setter def depth(self, value): self.scale_to_fit_depth(value) def get_array_attrs(self): return ["points"] def apply_over_attr_arrays(self, func): for attr in self.get_array_attrs(): setattr(self, attr, func(getattr(self, attr))) return self # Displaying def get_image(self, camera=None): if camera is None: from import Camera camera = Camera() camera.capture_mobject(self) return camera.get_image() def show(self, camera=None): self.get_image(camera=camera).show()
[docs] def save_image(self, name=None): """Saves an image of only this :class:`Mobject` at its position to a png file.""" self.get_image().save( Path(config.get_dir("video_dir")).joinpath((name or str(self)) + ".png"), )
[docs] def copy(self: T) -> T: """Create and return an identical copy of the :class:`Mobject` including all :attr:`submobjects`. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` The copy. Note ---- The clone is initially not visible in the Scene, even if the original was. """ return copy.deepcopy(self)
def generate_target(self, use_deepcopy=False): = None # Prevent unbounded linear recursion if use_deepcopy: = copy.deepcopy(self) else: = self.copy() return # Updating
[docs] def update(self, dt: float = 0, recursive: bool = True): """Apply all updaters. Does nothing if updating is suspended. Parameters ---------- dt The parameter ``dt`` to pass to the update functions. Usually this is the time in seconds since the last call of ``update``. recursive Whether to recursively update all submobjects. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` See Also -------- :meth:`add_updater` :meth:`get_updaters` """ if self.updating_suspended: return self for updater in self.updaters: parameters = get_parameters(updater) if "dt" in parameters: updater(self, dt) else: updater(self) if recursive: for submob in self.submobjects: submob.update(dt, recursive) return self
[docs] def get_time_based_updaters(self) -> list[Updater]: """Return all updaters using the ``dt`` parameter. The updaters use this parameter as the input for difference in time. Returns ------- List[:class:`Callable`] The list of time based updaters. See Also -------- :meth:`get_updaters` :meth:`has_time_based_updater` """ return [updater for updater in self.updaters if "dt" in get_parameters(updater)]
[docs] def has_time_based_updater(self) -> bool: """Test if ``self`` has a time based updater. Returns ------- class:`bool` ``True`` if at least one updater uses the ``dt`` parameter, ``False`` otherwise. See Also -------- :meth:`get_time_based_updaters` """ return any("dt" in get_parameters(updater) for updater in self.updaters)
[docs] def get_updaters(self) -> list[Updater]: """Return all updaters. Returns ------- List[:class:`Callable`] The list of updaters. See Also -------- :meth:`add_updater` :meth:`get_time_based_updaters` """ return self.updaters
def get_family_updaters(self): return list(it.chain(*(sm.get_updaters() for sm in self.get_family())))
[docs] def add_updater( self, update_function: Updater, index: int | None = None, call_updater: bool = False, ): """Add an update function to this mobject. Update functions, or updaters in short, are functions that are applied to the Mobject in every frame. Parameters ---------- update_function The update function to be added. Whenever :meth:`update` is called, this update function gets called using ``self`` as the first parameter. The updater can have a second parameter ``dt``. If it uses this parameter, it gets called using a second value ``dt``, usually representing the time in seconds since the last call of :meth:`update`. index The index at which the new updater should be added in ``self.updaters``. In case ``index`` is ``None`` the updater will be added at the end. call_updater Whether or not to call the updater initially. If ``True``, the updater will be called using ``dt=0``. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` Examples -------- .. manim:: NextToUpdater class NextToUpdater(Scene): def construct(self): def dot_position(mobject): mobject.set_value(dot.get_center()[0]) mobject.next_to(dot) dot = Dot(RIGHT*3) label = DecimalNumber() label.add_updater(dot_position) self.add(dot, label), about_point=ORIGIN, angle=TAU, run_time=TAU, rate_func=linear)) .. manim:: DtUpdater class DtUpdater(Scene): def construct(self): line = Square() #Let the line rotate 90° per second line.add_updater(lambda mobject, dt: mobject.rotate(dt*90*DEGREES)) self.add(line) self.wait(2) See also -------- :meth:`get_updaters` :meth:`remove_updater` :class:`~.UpdateFromFunc` """ if index is None: self.updaters.append(update_function) else: self.updaters.insert(index, update_function) if call_updater: parameters = get_parameters(update_function) if "dt" in parameters: update_function(self, 0) else: update_function(self) return self
[docs] def remove_updater(self, update_function: Updater): """Remove an updater. If the same updater is applied multiple times, every instance gets removed. Parameters ---------- update_function The update function to be removed. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` See also -------- :meth:`clear_updaters` :meth:`add_updater` :meth:`get_updaters` """ while update_function in self.updaters: self.updaters.remove(update_function) return self
[docs] def clear_updaters(self, recursive: bool = True): """Remove every updater. Parameters ---------- recursive Whether to recursively call ``clear_updaters`` on all submobjects. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` See also -------- :meth:`remove_updater` :meth:`add_updater` :meth:`get_updaters` """ self.updaters = [] if recursive: for submob in self.submobjects: submob.clear_updaters() return self
[docs] def match_updaters(self, mobject: Mobject): """Match the updaters of the given mobject. Parameters ---------- mobject The mobject whose updaters get matched. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` Note ---- All updaters from submobjects are removed, but only updaters of the given mobject are matched, not those of it's submobjects. See also -------- :meth:`add_updater` :meth:`clear_updaters` """ self.clear_updaters() for updater in mobject.get_updaters(): self.add_updater(updater) return self
[docs] def suspend_updating(self, recursive: bool = True): """Disable updating from updaters and animations. Parameters ---------- recursive Whether to recursively suspend updating on all submobjects. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` See also -------- :meth:`resume_updating` :meth:`add_updater` """ self.updating_suspended = True if recursive: for submob in self.submobjects: submob.suspend_updating(recursive) return self
[docs] def resume_updating(self, recursive: bool = True): """Enable updating from updaters and animations. Parameters ---------- recursive Whether to recursively enable updating on all submobjects. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` See also -------- :meth:`suspend_updating` :meth:`add_updater` """ self.updating_suspended = False if recursive: for submob in self.submobjects: submob.resume_updating(recursive) self.update(dt=0, recursive=recursive) return self
# Transforming operations
[docs] def apply_to_family(self, func: Callable[[Mobject], None]): """Apply a function to ``self`` and every submobject with points recursively. Parameters ---------- func The function to apply to each mobject. ``func`` gets passed the respective (sub)mobject as parameter. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` See also -------- :meth:`family_members_with_points` """ for mob in self.family_members_with_points(): func(mob)
[docs] def shift(self, *vectors: np.ndarray): """Shift by the given vectors. Parameters ---------- vectors Vectors to shift by. If multiple vectors are given, they are added together. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` See also -------- :meth:`move_to` """ total_vector = reduce(op.add, vectors) for mob in self.family_members_with_points(): mob.points = mob.points.astype("float") mob.points += total_vector return self
[docs] def scale(self, scale_factor: float, **kwargs): r"""Scale the size by a factor. Default behavior is to scale about the center of the mobject. Parameters ---------- scale_factor The scaling factor :math:`\alpha`. If :math:`0 < |\alpha| < 1`, the mobject will shrink, and for :math:`|\alpha| > 1` it will grow. Furthermore, if :math:`\alpha < 0`, the mobject is also flipped. kwargs Additional keyword arguments passed to :meth:`apply_points_function_about_point`. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` Examples -------- .. manim:: MobjectScaleExample :save_last_frame: class MobjectScaleExample(Scene): def construct(self): f1 = Text("F") f2 = Text("F").scale(2) f3 = Text("F").scale(0.5) f4 = Text("F").scale(-1) vgroup = VGroup(f1, f2, f3, f4).arrange(6 * RIGHT) self.add(vgroup) See also -------- :meth:`move_to` """ self.apply_points_function_about_point( lambda points: scale_factor * points, **kwargs ) return self
[docs] def rotate_about_origin(self, angle, axis=OUT, axes=[]): """Rotates the :class:`~.Mobject` about the ORIGIN, which is at [0,0,0].""" return self.rotate(angle, axis, about_point=ORIGIN)
[docs] def rotate( self, angle, axis=OUT, about_point: Sequence[float] | None = None, **kwargs, ): """Rotates the :class:`~.Mobject` about a certain point.""" rot_matrix = rotation_matrix(angle, axis) self.apply_points_function_about_point( lambda points:, rot_matrix.T), about_point, **kwargs ) return self
[docs] def flip(self, axis=UP, **kwargs): """Flips/Mirrors an mobject about its center. Examples -------- .. manim:: FlipExample :save_last_frame: class FlipExample(Scene): def construct(self): s= Line(LEFT, RIGHT+UP).shift(4*LEFT) self.add(s) s2= s.copy().flip() self.add(s2) """ return self.rotate(TAU / 2, axis, **kwargs)
def stretch(self, factor, dim, **kwargs): def func(points): points[:, dim] *= factor return points self.apply_points_function_about_point(func, **kwargs) return self def apply_function(self, function, **kwargs): # Default to applying matrix about the origin, not mobjects center if len(kwargs) == 0: kwargs["about_point"] = ORIGIN self.apply_points_function_about_point( lambda points: np.apply_along_axis(function, 1, points), **kwargs ) return self def apply_function_to_position(self, function): self.move_to(function(self.get_center())) return self def apply_function_to_submobject_positions(self, function): for submob in self.submobjects: submob.apply_function_to_position(function) return self def apply_matrix(self, matrix, **kwargs): # Default to applying matrix about the origin, not mobjects center if ("about_point" not in kwargs) and ("about_edge" not in kwargs): kwargs["about_point"] = ORIGIN full_matrix = np.identity(self.dim) matrix = np.array(matrix) full_matrix[: matrix.shape[0], : matrix.shape[1]] = matrix self.apply_points_function_about_point( lambda points:, full_matrix.T), **kwargs ) return self
[docs] def apply_complex_function(self, function, **kwargs): """Applies a complex function to a :class:`Mobject`. The x and y coordinates correspond to the real and imaginary parts respectively. Example ------- .. manim:: ApplyFuncExample class ApplyFuncExample(Scene): def construct(self): circ = Circle().scale(1.5) circ_ref = circ.copy() circ.apply_complex_function( lambda x: np.exp(x*1j) ) t = ValueTracker(0) circ.add_updater( lambda x: x.become(circ_ref.copy().apply_complex_function( lambda x: np.exp(x+t.get_value()*1j) )).set_color(BLUE) ) self.add(circ_ref), circ)), run_time=3) """ def R3_func(point): x, y, z = point xy_complex = function(complex(x, y)) return [xy_complex.real, xy_complex.imag, z] return self.apply_function(R3_func)
def wag(self, direction=RIGHT, axis=DOWN, wag_factor=1.0): for mob in self.family_members_with_points(): alphas =, np.transpose(axis)) alphas -= min(alphas) alphas /= max(alphas) alphas = alphas**wag_factor mob.points += alphas.reshape((len(alphas), 1)), np.array(direction).reshape((1, mob.dim)), ) return self def reverse_points(self): for mob in self.family_members_with_points(): mob.apply_over_attr_arrays(lambda arr: np.array(list(reversed(arr)))) return self
[docs] def repeat(self, count: int): """This can make transition animations nicer""" def repeat_array(array): return reduce(lambda a1, a2: np.append(a1, a2, axis=0), [array] * count) for mob in self.family_members_with_points(): mob.apply_over_attr_arrays(repeat_array) return self
# In place operations. # Note, much of these are now redundant with default behavior of # above methods def apply_points_function_about_point( self, func, about_point=None, about_edge=None, ): if about_point is None: if about_edge is None: about_edge = ORIGIN about_point = self.get_critical_point(about_edge) for mob in self.family_members_with_points(): mob.points -= about_point mob.points = func(mob.points) mob.points += about_point return self def pose_at_angle(self, **kwargs): self.rotate(TAU / 14, RIGHT + UP, **kwargs) return self # Positioning methods def center(self): self.shift(-self.get_center()) return self
[docs] def align_on_border(self, direction, buff=DEFAULT_MOBJECT_TO_EDGE_BUFFER): """Direction just needs to be a vector pointing towards side or corner in the 2d plane. """ target_point = np.sign(direction) * ( config["frame_x_radius"], config["frame_y_radius"], 0, ) point_to_align = self.get_critical_point(direction) shift_val = target_point - point_to_align - buff * np.array(direction) shift_val = shift_val * abs(np.sign(direction)) self.shift(shift_val) return self
def to_corner(self, corner=LEFT + DOWN, buff=DEFAULT_MOBJECT_TO_EDGE_BUFFER): return self.align_on_border(corner, buff) def to_edge(self, edge=LEFT, buff=DEFAULT_MOBJECT_TO_EDGE_BUFFER): return self.align_on_border(edge, buff)
[docs] def next_to( self, mobject_or_point, direction=RIGHT, buff=DEFAULT_MOBJECT_TO_MOBJECT_BUFFER, aligned_edge=ORIGIN, submobject_to_align=None, index_of_submobject_to_align=None, coor_mask=np.array([1, 1, 1]), ): """Move this :class:`~.Mobject` next to another's :class:`~.Mobject` or coordinate. Examples -------- .. manim:: GeometricShapes :save_last_frame: class GeometricShapes(Scene): def construct(self): d = Dot() c = Circle() s = Square() t = Triangle() d.next_to(c, RIGHT) s.next_to(c, LEFT) t.next_to(c, DOWN) self.add(d, c, s, t) """ if isinstance(mobject_or_point, Mobject): mob = mobject_or_point if index_of_submobject_to_align is not None: target_aligner = mob[index_of_submobject_to_align] else: target_aligner = mob target_point = target_aligner.get_critical_point(aligned_edge + direction) else: target_point = mobject_or_point if submobject_to_align is not None: aligner = submobject_to_align elif index_of_submobject_to_align is not None: aligner = self[index_of_submobject_to_align] else: aligner = self point_to_align = aligner.get_critical_point(aligned_edge - direction) self.shift((target_point - point_to_align + buff * direction) * coor_mask) return self
def shift_onto_screen(self, **kwargs): space_lengths = [config["frame_x_radius"], config["frame_y_radius"]] for vect in UP, DOWN, LEFT, RIGHT: dim = np.argmax(np.abs(vect)) buff = kwargs.get("buff", DEFAULT_MOBJECT_TO_EDGE_BUFFER) max_val = space_lengths[dim] - buff edge_center = self.get_edge_center(vect) if, vect) > max_val: self.to_edge(vect, **kwargs) return self def is_off_screen(self): if self.get_left()[0] > config["frame_x_radius"]: return True if self.get_right()[0] < -config["frame_x_radius"]: return True if self.get_bottom()[1] > config["frame_y_radius"]: return True if self.get_top()[1] < -config["frame_y_radius"]: return True return False def stretch_about_point(self, factor, dim, point): return self.stretch(factor, dim, about_point=point) def rescale_to_fit(self, length, dim, stretch=False, **kwargs): old_length = self.length_over_dim(dim) if old_length == 0: return self if stretch: self.stretch(length / old_length, dim, **kwargs) else: self.scale(length / old_length, **kwargs) return self
[docs] def scale_to_fit_width(self, width, **kwargs): """Scales the :class:`~.Mobject` to fit a width while keeping height/depth proportional. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` Examples -------- :: >>> from manim import * >>> sq = Square() >>> sq.height 2.0 >>> sq.scale_to_fit_width(5) Square >>> sq.width 5.0 >>> sq.height 5.0 """ return self.rescale_to_fit(width, 0, stretch=False, **kwargs)
[docs] def stretch_to_fit_width(self, width, **kwargs): """Stretches the :class:`~.Mobject` to fit a width, not keeping height/depth proportional. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` Examples -------- :: >>> from manim import * >>> sq = Square() >>> sq.height 2.0 >>> sq.stretch_to_fit_width(5) Square >>> sq.width 5.0 >>> sq.height 2.0 """ return self.rescale_to_fit(width, 0, stretch=True, **kwargs)
[docs] def scale_to_fit_height(self, height, **kwargs): """Scales the :class:`~.Mobject` to fit a height while keeping width/depth proportional. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` Examples -------- :: >>> from manim import * >>> sq = Square() >>> sq.width 2.0 >>> sq.scale_to_fit_height(5) Square >>> sq.height 5.0 >>> sq.width 5.0 """ return self.rescale_to_fit(height, 1, stretch=False, **kwargs)
[docs] def stretch_to_fit_height(self, height, **kwargs): """Stretches the :class:`~.Mobject` to fit a height, not keeping width/depth proportional. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` Examples -------- :: >>> from manim import * >>> sq = Square() >>> sq.width 2.0 >>> sq.stretch_to_fit_height(5) Square >>> sq.height 5.0 >>> sq.width 2.0 """ return self.rescale_to_fit(height, 1, stretch=True, **kwargs)
[docs] def scale_to_fit_depth(self, depth, **kwargs): """Scales the :class:`~.Mobject` to fit a depth while keeping width/height proportional.""" return self.rescale_to_fit(depth, 2, stretch=False, **kwargs)
[docs] def stretch_to_fit_depth(self, depth, **kwargs): """Stretches the :class:`~.Mobject` to fit a depth, not keeping width/height proportional.""" return self.rescale_to_fit(depth, 2, stretch=True, **kwargs)
def set_coord(self, value, dim, direction=ORIGIN): curr = self.get_coord(dim, direction) shift_vect = np.zeros(self.dim) shift_vect[dim] = value - curr self.shift(shift_vect) return self
[docs] def set_x(self, x, direction=ORIGIN): """Set x value of the center of the :class:`~.Mobject` (``int`` or ``float``)""" return self.set_coord(x, 0, direction)
[docs] def set_y(self, y, direction=ORIGIN): """Set y value of the center of the :class:`~.Mobject` (``int`` or ``float``)""" return self.set_coord(y, 1, direction)
[docs] def set_z(self, z, direction=ORIGIN): """Set z value of the center of the :class:`~.Mobject` (``int`` or ``float``)""" return self.set_coord(z, 2, direction)
def space_out_submobjects(self, factor=1.5, **kwargs): self.scale(factor, **kwargs) for submob in self.submobjects: submob.scale(1.0 / factor) return self
[docs] def move_to( self, point_or_mobject, aligned_edge=ORIGIN, coor_mask=np.array([1, 1, 1]), ): """Move center of the :class:`~.Mobject` to certain coordinate.""" if isinstance(point_or_mobject, Mobject): target = point_or_mobject.get_critical_point(aligned_edge) else: target = point_or_mobject point_to_align = self.get_critical_point(aligned_edge) self.shift((target - point_to_align) * coor_mask) return self
def replace(self, mobject, dim_to_match=0, stretch=False): if not mobject.get_num_points() and not mobject.submobjects: raise Warning("Attempting to replace mobject with no points") if stretch: self.stretch_to_fit_width(mobject.width) self.stretch_to_fit_height(mobject.height) else: self.rescale_to_fit( mobject.length_over_dim(dim_to_match), dim_to_match, stretch=False, ) self.shift(mobject.get_center() - self.get_center()) return self def surround( self, mobject: Mobject, dim_to_match=0, stretch=False, buff=MED_SMALL_BUFF, ): self.replace(mobject, dim_to_match, stretch) length = mobject.length_over_dim(dim_to_match) self.scale((length + buff) / length) return self def put_start_and_end_on(self, start, end): curr_start, curr_end = self.get_start_and_end() curr_vect = curr_end - curr_start if np.all(curr_vect == 0): raise Exception("Cannot position endpoints of closed loop") target_vect = np.array(end) - np.array(start) axis = ( normalize(np.cross(curr_vect, target_vect)) if np.linalg.norm(np.cross(curr_vect, target_vect)) != 0 else OUT ) self.scale( np.linalg.norm(target_vect) / np.linalg.norm(curr_vect), about_point=curr_start, ) self.rotate( angle_between_vectors(curr_vect, target_vect), about_point=curr_start, axis=axis, ) self.shift(start - curr_start) return self # Background rectangle
[docs] def add_background_rectangle( self, color: Colors | None = None, opacity: float = 0.75, **kwargs ): """Add a BackgroundRectangle as submobject. The BackgroundRectangle is added behind other submobjects. This can be used to increase the mobjects visibility in front of a noisy background. Parameters ---------- color The color of the BackgroundRectangle opacity The opacity of the BackgroundRectangle kwargs Additional keyword arguments passed to the BackgroundRectangle constructor Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` See Also -------- :meth:`add_to_back` :class:`~.BackgroundRectangle` """ # TODO, this does not behave well when the mobject has points, # since it gets displayed on top from manim.mobject.geometry.shape_matchers import BackgroundRectangle self.background_rectangle = BackgroundRectangle( self, color=color, fill_opacity=opacity, **kwargs ) self.add_to_back(self.background_rectangle) return self
def add_background_rectangle_to_submobjects(self, **kwargs): for submobject in self.submobjects: submobject.add_background_rectangle(**kwargs) return self def add_background_rectangle_to_family_members_with_points(self, **kwargs): for mob in self.family_members_with_points(): mob.add_background_rectangle(**kwargs) return self # Color functions
[docs] def set_color(self, color: Color = YELLOW_C, family: bool = True): """Condition is function which takes in one arguments, (x, y, z). Here it just recurses to submobjects, but in subclasses this should be further implemented based on the the inner workings of color """ if family: for submob in self.submobjects: submob.set_color(color, family=family) self.color = Color(color) return self
def set_color_by_gradient(self, *colors): self.set_submobject_colors_by_gradient(*colors) return self def set_colors_by_radial_gradient( self, center=None, radius=1, inner_color=WHITE, outer_color=BLACK, ): self.set_submobject_colors_by_radial_gradient( center, radius, inner_color, outer_color, ) return self def set_submobject_colors_by_gradient(self, *colors): if len(colors) == 0: raise ValueError("Need at least one color") elif len(colors) == 1: return self.set_color(*colors) mobs = self.family_members_with_points() new_colors = color_gradient(colors, len(mobs)) for mob, color in zip(mobs, new_colors): mob.set_color(color, family=False) return self def set_submobject_colors_by_radial_gradient( self, center=None, radius=1, inner_color=WHITE, outer_color=BLACK, ): if center is None: center = self.get_center() for mob in self.family_members_with_points(): t = np.linalg.norm(mob.get_center() - center) / radius t = min(t, 1) mob_color = interpolate_color(inner_color, outer_color, t) mob.set_color(mob_color, family=False) return self def to_original_color(self): self.set_color(self.color) return self def fade_to(self, color, alpha, family=True): if self.get_num_points() > 0: new_color = interpolate_color(self.get_color(), color, alpha) self.set_color(new_color, family=False) if family: for submob in self.submobjects: submob.fade_to(color, alpha) return self def fade(self, darkness=0.5, family=True): if family: for submob in self.submobjects: submob.fade(darkness, family) return self
[docs] def get_color(self): """Returns the color of the :class:`~.Mobject`""" return self.color
[docs] def save_state(self): """Save the current state (position, color & size). Can be restored with :meth:`~.Mobject.restore`.""" if hasattr(self, "saved_state"): # Prevent exponential growth of data self.saved_state = None self.saved_state = self.copy() return self
[docs] def restore(self): """Restores the state that was previously saved with :meth:`~.Mobject.save_state`.""" if not hasattr(self, "saved_state") or self.save_state is None: raise Exception("Trying to restore without having saved") self.become(self.saved_state) return self
[docs] def reduce_across_dimension(self, reduce_func, dim: int) -> float: """Find the min or max value from a dimension across all points in this and submobjects.""" assert dim >= 0 and dim <= 2 if len(self.submobjects) == 0 and len(self.points) == 0: # If we have no points and no submobjects, return 0 (e.g. center) return 0 # If we do not have points (but do have submobjects) # use only the points from those. if len(self.points) == 0: rv = None else: # Otherwise, be sure to include our own points rv = reduce_func(self.points[:, dim]) # Recursively ask submobjects (if any) for the biggest/ # smallest dimension they have and compare it to the return value. for mobj in self.submobjects: value = mobj.reduce_across_dimension(reduce_func, dim) if rv is None: rv = value else: rv = reduce_func([value, rv]) return rv
def nonempty_submobjects(self): return [ submob for submob in self.submobjects if len(submob.submobjects) != 0 or len(submob.points) != 0 ]
[docs] def get_merged_array(self, array_attr) -> np.ndarray: """Return all of a given attribute from this mobject and all submobjects. May contain duplicates; the order is in a depth-first (pre-order) traversal of the submobjects. """ result = getattr(self, array_attr) for submob in self.submobjects: result = np.append(result, submob.get_merged_array(array_attr), axis=0) return result
[docs] def get_all_points(self) -> np.ndarray: """Return all points from this mobject and all submobjects. May contain duplicates; the order is in a depth-first (pre-order) traversal of the submobjects. """ return self.get_merged_array("points")
# Getters def get_points_defining_boundary(self): return self.get_all_points() def get_num_points(self): return len(self.points) def get_extremum_along_dim(self, points=None, dim=0, key=0): if points is None: points = self.get_points_defining_boundary() values = points[:, dim] if key < 0: return np.min(values) elif key == 0: return (np.min(values) + np.max(values)) / 2 else: return np.max(values)
[docs] def get_critical_point(self, direction): """Picture a box bounding the :class:`~.Mobject`. Such a box has 9 'critical points': 4 corners, 4 edge center, the center. This returns one of them, along the given direction. :: sample = Arc(start_angle=PI/7, angle = PI/5) # These are all equivalent max_y_1 = sample.get_top()[1] max_y_2 = sample.get_critical_point(UP)[1] max_y_3 = sample.get_extremum_along_dim(dim=1, key=1) """ result = np.zeros(self.dim) all_points = self.get_points_defining_boundary() if len(all_points) == 0: return result for dim in range(self.dim): result[dim] = self.get_extremum_along_dim( all_points, dim=dim, key=direction[dim], ) return result
# Pseudonyms for more general get_critical_point method
[docs] def get_edge_center(self, direction) -> np.ndarray: """Get edge coordinates for certain direction.""" return self.get_critical_point(direction)
[docs] def get_corner(self, direction) -> np.ndarray: """Get corner coordinates for certain direction.""" return self.get_critical_point(direction)
[docs] def get_center(self) -> np.ndarray: """Get center coordinates""" return self.get_critical_point(np.zeros(self.dim))
def get_center_of_mass(self): return np.apply_along_axis(np.mean, 0, self.get_all_points()) def get_boundary_point(self, direction): all_points = self.get_points_defining_boundary() index = np.argmax(, np.array(direction).T)) return all_points[index]
[docs] def get_midpoint(self) -> np.ndarray: """Get coordinates of the middle of the path that forms the :class:`~.Mobject`. Examples -------- .. manim:: AngleMidPoint :save_last_frame: class AngleMidPoint(Scene): def construct(self): line1 = Line(ORIGIN, 2*RIGHT) line2 = Line(ORIGIN, 2*RIGHT).rotate_about_origin(80*DEGREES) a = Angle(line1, line2, radius=1.5, other_angle=False) d = Dot(a.get_midpoint()).set_color(RED) self.add(line1, line2, a, d) self.wait() """ return self.point_from_proportion(0.5)
[docs] def get_top(self) -> np.ndarray: """Get top coordinates of a box bounding the :class:`~.Mobject`""" return self.get_edge_center(UP)
[docs] def get_bottom(self) -> np.ndarray: """Get bottom coordinates of a box bounding the :class:`~.Mobject`""" return self.get_edge_center(DOWN)
[docs] def get_right(self) -> np.ndarray: """Get right coordinates of a box bounding the :class:`~.Mobject`""" return self.get_edge_center(RIGHT)
[docs] def get_left(self) -> np.ndarray: """Get left coordinates of a box bounding the :class:`~.Mobject`""" return self.get_edge_center(LEFT)
[docs] def get_zenith(self) -> np.ndarray: """Get zenith coordinates of a box bounding a 3D :class:`~.Mobject`.""" return self.get_edge_center(OUT)
[docs] def get_nadir(self) -> np.ndarray: """Get nadir (opposite the zenith) coordinates of a box bounding a 3D :class:`~.Mobject`.""" return self.get_edge_center(IN)
[docs] def length_over_dim(self, dim): """Measure the length of an :class:`~.Mobject` in a certain direction.""" return self.reduce_across_dimension( max, dim, ) - self.reduce_across_dimension(min, dim)
[docs] def get_coord(self, dim, direction=ORIGIN): """Meant to generalize ``get_x``, ``get_y`` and ``get_z``""" return self.get_extremum_along_dim(dim=dim, key=direction[dim])
[docs] def get_x(self, direction=ORIGIN) -> np.float64: """Returns x coordinate of the center of the :class:`~.Mobject` as ``float``""" return self.get_coord(0, direction)
[docs] def get_y(self, direction=ORIGIN) -> np.float64: """Returns y coordinate of the center of the :class:`~.Mobject` as ``float``""" return self.get_coord(1, direction)
[docs] def get_z(self, direction=ORIGIN) -> np.float64: """Returns z coordinate of the center of the :class:`~.Mobject` as ``float``""" return self.get_coord(2, direction)
[docs] def get_start(self): """Returns the point, where the stroke that surrounds the :class:`~.Mobject` starts.""" self.throw_error_if_no_points() return np.array(self.points[0])
[docs] def get_end(self): """Returns the point, where the stroke that surrounds the :class:`~.Mobject` ends.""" self.throw_error_if_no_points() return np.array(self.points[-1])
[docs] def get_start_and_end(self): """Returns starting and ending point of a stroke as a ``tuple``.""" return self.get_start(), self.get_end()
def point_from_proportion(self, alpha): raise NotImplementedError("Please override in a child class.") def proportion_from_point(self, point): raise NotImplementedError("Please override in a child class.") def get_pieces(self, n_pieces): template = self.copy() template.submobjects = [] alphas = np.linspace(0, 1, n_pieces + 1) return Group( *( template.copy().pointwise_become_partial(self, a1, a2) for a1, a2 in zip(alphas[:-1], alphas[1:]) ) ) def get_z_index_reference_point(self): # TODO, better place to define default z_index_group? z_index_group = getattr(self, "z_index_group", self) return z_index_group.get_center()
[docs] def has_points(self) -> bool: """Check if :class:`~.Mobject` contains points.""" return len(self.points) > 0
[docs] def has_no_points(self) -> bool: """Check if :class:`~.Mobject` *does not* contains points.""" return not self.has_points()
# Match other mobject properties
[docs] def match_color(self, mobject: Mobject): """Match the color with the color of another :class:`~.Mobject`.""" return self.set_color(mobject.get_color())
[docs] def match_dim_size(self, mobject: Mobject, dim, **kwargs): """Match the specified dimension with the dimension of another :class:`~.Mobject`.""" return self.rescale_to_fit(mobject.length_over_dim(dim), dim, **kwargs)
[docs] def match_width(self, mobject: Mobject, **kwargs): """Match the width with the width of another :class:`~.Mobject`.""" return self.match_dim_size(mobject, 0, **kwargs)
[docs] def match_height(self, mobject: Mobject, **kwargs): """Match the height with the height of another :class:`~.Mobject`.""" return self.match_dim_size(mobject, 1, **kwargs)
[docs] def match_depth(self, mobject: Mobject, **kwargs): """Match the depth with the depth of another :class:`~.Mobject`.""" return self.match_dim_size(mobject, 2, **kwargs)
[docs] def match_coord(self, mobject: Mobject, dim, direction=ORIGIN): """Match the coordinates with the coordinates of another :class:`~.Mobject`.""" return self.set_coord( mobject.get_coord(dim, direction), dim=dim, direction=direction, )
[docs] def match_x(self, mobject: Mobject, direction=ORIGIN): """Match x coord. to the x coord. of another :class:`~.Mobject`.""" return self.match_coord(mobject, 0, direction)
[docs] def match_y(self, mobject: Mobject, direction=ORIGIN): """Match y coord. to the x coord. of another :class:`~.Mobject`.""" return self.match_coord(mobject, 1, direction)
[docs] def match_z(self, mobject: Mobject, direction=ORIGIN): """Match z coord. to the x coord. of another :class:`~.Mobject`.""" return self.match_coord(mobject, 2, direction)
[docs] def align_to( self, mobject_or_point: Mobject | np.ndarray | list, direction=ORIGIN, ): """Aligns mobject to another :class:`~.Mobject` in a certain direction. Examples: mob1.align_to(mob2, UP) moves mob1 vertically so that its top edge lines ups with mob2's top edge. """ if isinstance(mobject_or_point, Mobject): point = mobject_or_point.get_critical_point(direction) else: point = mobject_or_point for dim in range(self.dim): if direction[dim] != 0: self.set_coord(point[dim], dim, direction) return self
# Family matters def __getitem__(self, value): self_list = self.split() if isinstance(value, slice): GroupClass = self.get_group_class() return GroupClass(*self_list.__getitem__(value)) return self_list.__getitem__(value) def __iter__(self): return iter(self.split()) def __len__(self): return len(self.split()) def get_group_class(self): return Group
[docs] @staticmethod def get_mobject_type_class(): """Return the base class of this mobject type.""" return Mobject
def split(self): result = [self] if len(self.points) > 0 else [] return result + self.submobjects def get_family(self, recurse=True): sub_families = list(map(Mobject.get_family, self.submobjects)) all_mobjects = [self] + list(it.chain(*sub_families)) return remove_list_redundancies(all_mobjects) def family_members_with_points(self): return [m for m in self.get_family() if m.get_num_points() > 0]
[docs] def arrange( self, direction: Sequence[float] = RIGHT, buff=DEFAULT_MOBJECT_TO_MOBJECT_BUFFER, center=True, **kwargs, ): """Sorts :class:`~.Mobject` next to each other on screen. Examples -------- .. manim:: Example :save_last_frame: class Example(Scene): def construct(self): s1 = Square() s2 = Square() s3 = Square() s4 = Square() x = VGroup(s1, s2, s3, s4).set_x(0).arrange(buff=1.0) self.add(x) """ for m1, m2 in zip(self.submobjects, self.submobjects[1:]): m2.next_to(m1, direction, buff, **kwargs) if center: return self
[docs] def arrange_in_grid( self, rows: int | None = None, cols: int | None = None, buff: float | tuple[float, float] = MED_SMALL_BUFF, cell_alignment: np.ndarray = ORIGIN, row_alignments: str | None = None, # "ucd" col_alignments: str | None = None, # "lcr" row_heights: Iterable[float | None] | None = None, col_widths: Iterable[float | None] | None = None, flow_order: str = "rd", **kwargs, ): """Arrange submobjects in a grid. Parameters ---------- rows The number of rows in the grid. cols The number of columns in the grid. buff The gap between grid cells. To specify a different buffer in the horizontal and vertical directions, a tuple of two values can be given - ``(row, col)``. cell_alignment The way each submobject is aligned in its grid cell. row_alignments The vertical alignment for each row (top to bottom). Accepts the following characters: ``"u"`` - up, ``"c"`` - center, ``"d"`` - down. col_alignments The horizontal alignment for each column (left to right). Accepts the following characters ``"l"`` - left, ``"c"`` - center, ``"r"`` - right. row_heights Defines a list of heights for certain rows (top to bottom). If the list contains ``None``, the corresponding row will fit its height automatically based on the highest element in that row. col_widths Defines a list of widths for certain columns (left to right). If the list contains ``None``, the corresponding column will fit its width automatically based on the widest element in that column. flow_order The order in which submobjects fill the grid. Can be one of the following values: "rd", "dr", "ld", "dl", "ru", "ur", "lu", "ul". ("rd" -> fill rightwards then downwards) Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` Raises ------ ValueError If ``rows`` and ``cols`` are too small to fit all submobjects. ValueError If :code:`cols`, :code:`col_alignments` and :code:`col_widths` or :code:`rows`, :code:`row_alignments` and :code:`row_heights` have mismatching sizes. Notes ----- If only one of ``cols`` and ``rows`` is set implicitly, the other one will be chosen big enough to fit all submobjects. If neither is set, they will be chosen to be about the same, tending towards ``cols`` > ``rows`` (simply because videos are wider than they are high). If both ``cell_alignment`` and ``row_alignments`` / ``col_alignments`` are defined, the latter has higher priority. Examples -------- .. manim:: ExampleBoxes :save_last_frame: class ExampleBoxes(Scene): def construct(self): boxes=VGroup(*[Square() for s in range(0,6)]) boxes.arrange_in_grid(rows=2, buff=0.1) self.add(boxes) .. manim:: ArrangeInGrid :save_last_frame: class ArrangeInGrid(Scene): def construct(self): boxes = VGroup(*[ Rectangle(WHITE, 0.5, 0.5).add(Text(str(i+1)).scale(0.5)) for i in range(24) ]) self.add(boxes) boxes.arrange_in_grid( buff=(0.25,0.5), col_alignments="lccccr", row_alignments="uccd", col_widths=[1, *[None]*4, 1], row_heights=[1, None, None, 1], flow_order="dr" ) """ from manim.mobject.geometry.line import Line mobs = self.submobjects.copy() start_pos = self.get_center() # get cols / rows values if given (implicitly) def init_size(num, alignments, sizes): if num is not None: return num if alignments is not None: return len(alignments) if sizes is not None: return len(sizes) cols = init_size(cols, col_alignments, col_widths) rows = init_size(rows, row_alignments, row_heights) # calculate rows cols if rows is None and cols is None: cols = ceil(np.sqrt(len(mobs))) # make the grid as close to quadratic as possible. # choosing cols first can results in cols>rows. # This is favored over rows>cols since in general # the sceene is wider than high. if rows is None: rows = ceil(len(mobs) / cols) if cols is None: cols = ceil(len(mobs) / rows) if rows * cols < len(mobs): raise ValueError("Too few rows and columns to fit all submobjetcs.") # rows and cols are now finally valid. if isinstance(buff, tuple): buff_x = buff[0] buff_y = buff[1] else: buff_x = buff_y = buff # Initialize alignments correctly def init_alignments(alignments, num, mapping, name, dir): if alignments is None: # Use cell_alignment as fallback return [cell_alignment * dir] * num if len(alignments) != num: raise ValueError(f"{name}_alignments has a mismatching size.") alignments = list(alignments) for i in range(num): alignments[i] = mapping[alignments[i]] return alignments row_alignments = init_alignments( row_alignments, rows, {"u": UP, "c": ORIGIN, "d": DOWN}, "row", RIGHT, ) col_alignments = init_alignments( col_alignments, cols, {"l": LEFT, "c": ORIGIN, "r": RIGHT}, "col", UP, ) # Now row_alignment[r] + col_alignment[c] is the alignment in cell [r][c] mapper = { "dr": lambda r, c: (rows - r - 1) + c * rows, "dl": lambda r, c: (rows - r - 1) + (cols - c - 1) * rows, "ur": lambda r, c: r + c * rows, "ul": lambda r, c: r + (cols - c - 1) * rows, "rd": lambda r, c: (rows - r - 1) * cols + c, "ld": lambda r, c: (rows - r - 1) * cols + (cols - c - 1), "ru": lambda r, c: r * cols + c, "lu": lambda r, c: r * cols + (cols - c - 1), } if flow_order not in mapper: raise ValueError( 'flow_order must be one of the following values: "dr", "rd", "ld" "dl", "ru", "ur", "lu", "ul".', ) flow_order = mapper[flow_order] # Reverse row_alignments and row_heights. Necessary since the # grid filling is handled bottom up for simplicity reasons. def reverse(maybe_list): if maybe_list is not None: maybe_list = list(maybe_list) maybe_list.reverse() return maybe_list row_alignments = reverse(row_alignments) row_heights = reverse(row_heights) placeholder = Mobject() # Used to fill up the grid temporarily, doesn't get added to the scene. # In this case a Mobject is better than None since it has width and height # properties of 0. mobs.extend([placeholder] * (rows * cols - len(mobs))) grid = [[mobs[flow_order(r, c)] for c in range(cols)] for r in range(rows)] measured_heigths = [ max(grid[r][c].height for c in range(cols)) for r in range(rows) ] measured_widths = [ max(grid[r][c].width for r in range(rows)) for c in range(cols) ] # Initialize row_heights / col_widths correctly using measurements as fallback def init_sizes(sizes, num, measures, name): if sizes is None: sizes = [None] * num if len(sizes) != num: raise ValueError(f"{name} has a mismatching size.") return [ sizes[i] if sizes[i] is not None else measures[i] for i in range(num) ] heights = init_sizes(row_heights, rows, measured_heigths, "row_heights") widths = init_sizes(col_widths, cols, measured_widths, "col_widths") x, y = 0, 0 for r in range(rows): x = 0 for c in range(cols): if grid[r][c] is not placeholder: alignment = row_alignments[r] + col_alignments[c] line = Line( x * RIGHT + y * UP, (x + widths[c]) * RIGHT + (y + heights[r]) * UP, ) # Use a mobject to avoid rewriting align inside # box code that Mobject.move_to(Mobject) already # includes. grid[r][c].move_to(line, alignment) x += widths[c] + buff_x y += heights[r] + buff_y self.move_to(start_pos) return self
[docs] def sort(self, point_to_num_func=lambda p: p[0], submob_func=None): """Sorts the list of :attr:`submobjects` by a function defined by ``submob_func``.""" if submob_func is None: def submob_func(m): return point_to_num_func(m.get_center()) self.submobjects.sort(key=submob_func) return self
[docs] def shuffle(self, recursive=False): """Shuffles the list of :attr:`submobjects`.""" if recursive: for submob in self.submobjects: submob.shuffle(recursive=True) random.shuffle(self.submobjects)
[docs] def invert(self, recursive=False): """Inverts the list of :attr:`submobjects`. Parameters ---------- recursive If ``True``, all submobject lists of this mobject's family are inverted. Examples -------- .. manim:: InvertSumobjectsExample class InvertSumobjectsExample(Scene): def construct(self): s = VGroup(*[Dot().shift(i*0.1*RIGHT) for i in range(-20,20)]) s2 = s.copy() s2.invert() s2.shift(DOWN), Write(s2)) """ if recursive: for submob in self.submobjects: submob.invert(recursive=True) list.reverse(self.submobjects)
# Just here to keep from breaking old scenes.
[docs] def arrange_submobjects(self, *args, **kwargs): """Arrange the position of :attr:`submobjects` with a small buffer. Examples -------- .. manim:: ArrangeSumobjectsExample :save_last_frame: class ArrangeSumobjectsExample(Scene): def construct(self): s= VGroup(*[Dot().shift(i*0.1*RIGHT*np.random.uniform(-1,1)+UP*np.random.uniform(-1,1)) for i in range(0,15)]) s.shift(UP).set_color(BLUE) s2= s.copy().set_color(RED) s2.arrange_submobjects() s2.shift(DOWN) self.add(s,s2) """ return self.arrange(*args, **kwargs)
[docs] def sort_submobjects(self, *args, **kwargs): """Sort the :attr:`submobjects`""" return self.sort(*args, **kwargs)
[docs] def shuffle_submobjects(self, *args, **kwargs): """Shuffles the order of :attr:`submobjects` Examples -------- .. manim:: ShuffleSubmobjectsExample class ShuffleSubmobjectsExample(Scene): def construct(self): s= VGroup(*[Dot().shift(i*0.1*RIGHT) for i in range(-20,20)]) s2= s.copy() s2.shuffle_submobjects() s2.shift(DOWN), Write(s2)) """ return self.shuffle(*args, **kwargs)
# Alignment
[docs] def align_data(self, mobject: Mobject, skip_point_alignment: bool = False): """Aligns the data of this mobject with another mobject. Afterwards, the two mobjects will have the same number of submobjects (see :meth:`.align_submobjects`), the same parent structure (see :meth:`.null_point_align`). If ``skip_point_alignment`` is false, they will also have the same number of points (see :meth:`.align_points`). Parameters ---------- mobject The other mobject this mobject should be aligned to. skip_point_alignment Controls whether or not the computationally expensive point alignment is skipped (default: False). """ self.null_point_align(mobject) self.align_submobjects(mobject) if not skip_point_alignment: self.align_points(mobject) # Recurse for m1, m2 in zip(self.submobjects, mobject.submobjects): m1.align_data(m2)
[docs] def get_point_mobject(self, center=None): """The simplest :class:`~.Mobject` to be transformed to or from self. Should by a point of the appropriate type """ msg = f"get_point_mobject not implemented for {self.__class__.__name__}" raise NotImplementedError(msg)
def align_points(self, mobject): count1 = self.get_num_points() count2 = mobject.get_num_points() if count1 < count2: self.align_points_with_larger(mobject) elif count2 < count1: mobject.align_points_with_larger(self) return self def align_points_with_larger(self, larger_mobject): raise NotImplementedError("Please override in a child class.") def align_submobjects(self, mobject): mob1 = self mob2 = mobject n1 = len(mob1.submobjects) n2 = len(mob2.submobjects) mob1.add_n_more_submobjects(max(0, n2 - n1)) mob2.add_n_more_submobjects(max(0, n1 - n2)) return self
[docs] def null_point_align(self, mobject: Mobject): """If a :class:`~.Mobject` with points is being aligned to one without, treat both as groups, and push the one with points into its own submobjects list. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` ``self`` """ for m1, m2 in (self, mobject), (mobject, self): if m1.has_no_points() and m2.has_points(): m2.push_self_into_submobjects() return self
def push_self_into_submobjects(self): copy = self.copy() copy.submobjects = [] self.reset_points() self.add(copy) return self def add_n_more_submobjects(self, n): if n == 0: return curr = len(self.submobjects) if curr == 0: # If empty, simply add n point mobjects self.submobjects = [self.get_point_mobject() for k in range(n)] return target = curr + n # TODO, factor this out to utils so as to reuse # with VMobject.insert_n_curves repeat_indices = (np.arange(target) * curr) // target split_factors = [sum(repeat_indices == i) for i in range(curr)] new_submobs = [] for submob, sf in zip(self.submobjects, split_factors): new_submobs.append(submob) for _ in range(1, sf): new_submobs.append(submob.copy().fade(1)) self.submobjects = new_submobs return self def repeat_submobject(self, submob): return submob.copy()
[docs] def interpolate(self, mobject1, mobject2, alpha, path_func=straight_path()): """Turns this :class:`~.Mobject` into an interpolation between ``mobject1`` and ``mobject2``. Examples -------- .. manim:: DotInterpolation :save_last_frame: class DotInterpolation(Scene): def construct(self): dotR = Dot(color=DARK_GREY) dotR.shift(2 * RIGHT) dotL = Dot(color=WHITE) dotL.shift(2 * LEFT) dotMiddle = VMobject().interpolate(dotL, dotR, alpha=0.3) self.add(dotL, dotR, dotMiddle) """ self.points = path_func(mobject1.points, mobject2.points, alpha) self.interpolate_color(mobject1, mobject2, alpha) return self
def interpolate_color(self, mobject1, mobject2, alpha): raise NotImplementedError("Please override in a child class.")
[docs] def become( self, mobject: Mobject, copy_submobjects: bool = True, match_height: bool = False, match_width: bool = False, match_depth: bool = False, match_center: bool = False, stretch: bool = False, ): """Edit points, colors and submobjects to be identical to another :class:`~.Mobject` .. note:: If both match_height and match_width are ``True`` then the transformed :class:`~.Mobject` will match the height first and then the width Parameters ---------- match_height If ``True``, then the transformed :class:`~.Mobject` will match the height of the original match_width If ``True``, then the transformed :class:`~.Mobject` will match the width of the original match_depth If ``True``, then the transformed :class:`~.Mobject` will match the depth of the original match_center If ``True``, then the transformed :class:`~.Mobject` will match the center of the original stretch If ``True``, then the transformed :class:`~.Mobject` will stretch to fit the proportions of the original Examples -------- .. manim:: BecomeScene class BecomeScene(Scene): def construct(self): circ = Circle(fill_color=RED, fill_opacity=0.8) square = Square(fill_color=BLUE, fill_opacity=0.2) self.add(circ) self.wait(0.5) circ.become(square) self.wait(0.5) """ if stretch: mobject.stretch_to_fit_height(self.height) mobject.stretch_to_fit_width(self.width) mobject.stretch_to_fit_depth(self.depth) else: if match_height: mobject.match_height(self) if match_width: mobject.match_width(self) if match_depth: mobject.match_depth(self) if match_center: mobject.move_to(self.get_center()) self.align_data(mobject, skip_point_alignment=True) for sm1, sm2 in zip(self.get_family(), mobject.get_family()): sm1.points = np.array(sm2.points) sm1.interpolate_color(sm1, sm2, 1) return self
[docs] def match_points(self, mobject: Mobject, copy_submobjects: bool = True): """Edit points, positions, and submobjects to be identical to another :class:`~.Mobject`, while keeping the style unchanged. Examples -------- .. manim:: MatchPointsScene class MatchPointsScene(Scene): def construct(self): circ = Circle(fill_color=RED, fill_opacity=0.8) square = Square(fill_color=BLUE, fill_opacity=0.2) self.add(circ) self.wait(0.5) self.wait(0.5) """ for sm1, sm2 in zip(self.get_family(), mobject.get_family()): sm1.points = np.array(sm2.points) return self
# Errors def throw_error_if_no_points(self): if self.has_no_points(): caller_name = sys._getframe(1).f_code.co_name raise Exception( f"Cannot call Mobject.{caller_name} for a Mobject with no points", ) # About z-index
[docs] def set_z_index( self, z_index_value: float, family: bool = True, ) -> VMobject: """Sets the :class:`~.Mobject`'s :attr:`z_index` to the value specified in `z_index_value`. Parameters ---------- z_index_value The new value of :attr:`z_index` set. family If ``True``, the :attr:`z_index` value of all submobjects is also set. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` The Mobject itself, after :attr:`z_index` is set. For chaining purposes. (Returns `self`.) Examples -------- .. manim:: SetZIndex :save_last_frame: class SetZIndex(Scene): def construct(self): text = Text('z_index = 3', color = PURE_RED).shift(UP).set_z_index(3) square = Square(2, fill_opacity=1).set_z_index(2) tex = Tex(r'zIndex = 1', color = PURE_BLUE).shift(DOWN).set_z_index(1) circle = Circle(radius = 1.7, color = GREEN, fill_opacity = 1) # z_index = 0 # Displaying order is now defined by z_index values self.add(text) self.add(square) self.add(tex) self.add(circle) """ if family: for submob in self.submobjects: submob.set_z_index(z_index_value, family=family) self.z_index = z_index_value return self
[docs] def set_z_index_by_z_coordinate(self): """Sets the :class:`~.Mobject`'s z coordinate to the value of :attr:`z_index`. Returns ------- :class:`Mobject` The Mobject itself, after :attr:`z_index` is set. (Returns `self`.) """ z_coord = self.get_center()[-1] self.set_z_index(z_coord) return self
[docs]class Group(Mobject, metaclass=ConvertToOpenGL): """Groups together multiple :class:`Mobjects <.Mobject>`. Notes ----- When adding the same mobject more than once, repetitions are ignored. Use :meth:`.Mobject.copy` to create a separate copy which can then be added to the group. """ def __init__(self, *mobjects, **kwargs): super().__init__(**kwargs) self.add(*mobjects)
class _AnimationBuilder: def __init__(self, mobject): self.mobject = mobject self.mobject.generate_target() self.overridden_animation = None self.is_chaining = False self.methods = [] # Whether animation args can be passed self.cannot_pass_args = False self.anim_args = {} def __call__(self, **kwargs): if self.cannot_pass_args: raise ValueError( "Animation arguments must be passed before accessing methods and can only be passed once", ) self.anim_args = kwargs self.cannot_pass_args = True return self def __getattr__(self, method_name): method = getattr(, method_name) has_overridden_animation = hasattr(method, "_override_animate") if (self.is_chaining and has_overridden_animation) or self.overridden_animation: raise NotImplementedError( "Method chaining is currently not supported for " "overridden animations", ) def update_target(*method_args, **method_kwargs): if has_overridden_animation: self.overridden_animation = method._override_animate( self.mobject, *method_args, anim_args=self.anim_args, **method_kwargs, ) else: self.methods.append([method, method_args, method_kwargs]) method(*method_args, **method_kwargs) return self self.is_chaining = True self.cannot_pass_args = True return update_target def build(self): from ..animation.transform import _MethodAnimation if self.overridden_animation: anim = self.overridden_animation else: anim = _MethodAnimation(self.mobject, self.methods) for attr, value in self.anim_args.items(): setattr(anim, attr, value) return anim
[docs]def override_animate(method): r"""Decorator for overriding method animations. This allows to specify a method (returning an :class:`~.Animation`) which is called when the decorated method is used with the ``.animate`` syntax for animating the application of a method. .. seealso:: :attr:`Mobject.animate` .. note:: Overridden methods cannot be combined with normal or other overridden methods using method chaining with the ``.animate`` syntax. Examples -------- .. manim:: AnimationOverrideExample class CircleWithContent(VGroup): def __init__(self, content): super().__init__() = Circle() self.content = content self.add(, content) content.move_to( def clear_content(self): self.remove(self.content) self.content = None @override_animate(clear_content) def _clear_content_animation(self, anim_args=None): if anim_args is None: anim_args = {} anim = Uncreate(self.content, **anim_args) self.clear_content() return anim class AnimationOverrideExample(Scene): def construct(self): t = Text("hello!") my_mobject = CircleWithContent(t) self.wait() """ def decorator(animation_method): method._override_animate = animation_method return animation_method return decorator